binomial nomenclature


Значение термина binomial nomenclature в knolik


binomial nomenclature - binomial nomenclature
binomial nomenclature - The present method of naming species of animals and plants scientifically. When a new organism is discovered a description of it is published, often in Latin, and it is given a name, always in Latin. The name is in two parts (binomial); one part (the specific epithet or trivial name) peculiar to the new species; the other part (the generic name) designating the genus to which it belongs, and therefore applied in the same way to other closely related species, if there are any, but to no other genus. The generic name is written first with a capital letter, the specific second, usually with a small letter, e.g. Cants familiaris (the dog) is one species, Cants lupus (the wolf) is another of the same genus. Such scientific names are usually written in italics. Strictly the name (sometimes abbreviated) of the author responsible for naming and describing the species should follow, e.g. Canis lupus Linn, (the author here being Linnaeus). When subsequent to the original description the species has been transferred to a different genus, the original author's name is put into brackets. It is usual for one specimen to be designated as the 'type' of a given species; in any later splitting of the species the original specific epithet must continue with the type and those specimens like it (See also: Type Specimen). These and other rules form part of the International Rules of Nomenclature, with separate rules for Botany and Zoology. Naming is supervised by an international committee. The binomial system was introduced by the early herbalists, and was first systematically applied by Linnaeus in the middle of the eighteenth century. The names used by Linnaeus in the Species Plantarum (1753) and in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae (1758) are the basis of the system for plants and animals respectively, apart from a few groups with which he did not deal, for which other classical descriptive works serve. Species not included in these are given the epithet first applied to them. If such an epithet is later found not to have been the first given to the species, it must, according to the rules of priority, be replaced by the earlier one, which leads to some instability of nomenclature. Provision is however made in special cases for waiving the rules. Where sub-species or varieties have been defined, a trinomial system is commonly used, the third name indicating the sub-species or variety, e.g. Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes, the British wren.

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