Значение термина mycophyta в knolik
mycophyta - mycophyta
mycophyta - Fungi - mushrooms, moulds, rusts, yeasts, etc. Group (Division) of simple eucaryotic organisms lacking chlorophyll. Unicellular, or possess tubular filaments, hyphae; reproducing asexually and sexually with formation of spores, often produced in enormous numbers. Many fungi are microscopic; some, especially their fruit-bodies, e.g. mushroom, puff-ball, reach a fair size. Lacking chlorophyll, fungi live either as saprophytes or as parasites of plants and animals. They are extremely important as agents of plant disease (they also cause a few animal diseases), and in the decay of food, fabrics and timber. In soil they take part with other organisms in decomposition of plant and animal residues. Various fungi are used in industrial processes, e.g. brewing and baking, others provide valuable sources of certain food proteins and vitamins. The development of antibiotics from fungi, particularly of penicillin from certain species of Penicillium, has been responsible for important advances in medical practice. Division is sub-divided into four classes; (1) Phycomycetes, possessing hyphae usually without cross walls (non-septate, aseptate), reproducing asexually by zoospores, aplanospores or conidia, and sexually with formation of thick-walled resting spores; (2) As-comycetes, possessing hyphae with cross walls (septate), with asexual reproduction by conidia and sexual reproduction with formation of ascospores in an almost spherical or cylindrical cell, the ascus. In most Ascomycetes the asci are grouped within fruit-bodies (cleistocarp, apothecium, perithecium) visible to the naked eye; (3) Basidiomycetes, with septate hyphae and sexually produced spores, basidiospores, borne externally on a club-shaped or cylindrical cell, the basidium. In some members the basidia are grouped together in highly-organized fruit-bodies, e.g. mushroom, puff-ball, stink-horn, bracket-fungus; (4) Fungi Imperfectly a group of fungi with septate hyphae that lack a sexually reproducing stage, thought to be mostly asexual forms of Ascomycetes in which sexual stage has been lost during evolution or has not yet been identified. mygoplasmas. Smallest free-living micro-organisms. Procaryotic, lacking cell wall, variable in form and able to pass through bacteria-retaining filters. Grouped in genus Alycoplasma and usually classified with bacteria. Some are saprophytic, others cause diseases of animals and man. Earlier known as pleuro-pneumonia-like (PPLO) organisms after disease caused in cattle by first member to be described. Recently shown to be cause of certain plant diseases formerly attributed to viruses.
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