mutation defined in 1951 year

mutation - mutation;
mutation - Sudden change in chromosomal DNA. The most important mutations are those occurring in the gametes or their precursors, since they can produce an inherited change in the characteristics of the organisms developing from them, such changes being the raw material of evolution. The majority of mutations are changes of individual genes (gene-mutations), but some are gross structural alterations of chromosomes (e.g. inversion, translocation) or changes in numbers of whole chromosomes per nucleus (e.g. polyploidy). Mutation is normally a very infrequent event, though it can be greatly speeded up by irradiation with X-rays, gamma-rays, neutrons, etc., and by some chemicals (e.g. mustard gas). From the standpoint of adaptation of the organism, mutations are random. Evolution has occurred by natural selection of mutations, not by directed mutation. They are merely the raw material for evolutionary change. The great majority of mutations are deleterious, upsetting the balanced mechanism of embryonic development of the organism; and on the whole the larger the change they induce the more deleterious they are.

Mutation in the restricted sense of gene-mutation is a sudden change in an individual gene, probably the substitution of a different nucleotide for an existing one in the DNA, which alters the amino acid sequence of the protein normally dependent on that gene, with many possible repercussions in structure and function of the organism. The changed gene is allelomorphic to the old. It reproduces itself, in the changed form, many times (perhaps of the order of a million) before undergoing another mutation, which may be back to the original gene, or to a new allele. The same kind of gene-mutation, i.e. a change from one particular allele to another particular allele,, occurs repeatedly within a population of organisms, probably over long periods of time. E.g. in the human population the gene for haemophilia has arisen repeatedly by mutation from a normal allele. An entirely new gene-mutation is therefore a much rarer event than the mutation rate would suggest.

A mutation may occur in a body-cell (somatic mutation) and is then transmitted to all cells derived by mitosis from that cell.

near mutation in Knolik

letter "M"
start from "MU"
mute swan

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