vernalization



vernalization defined in 1951 year

vernalization - vernalization;
vernalization - Application of cold treatment to plants to effect flowering. Intimately related with day-length. See also: Photoperiodism. First studied in cereals some of which, if sown in spring, will not flower in the same year but continue to grow vegetatively. Such plants, known as winter varieties, need to be sown in the autumn of the year preceding that in which it is desired that they should flower, and they contrast with spring varieties which, planted in spring, flower in the same year. By vernalization winter cereals can be sown and brought to flower in one season. The seed is moistened sufficiently to allow germination to begin, but not so much as to encourage rapid growth, and when tips of radicles are just emerging, the seed is exposed to a temperature just above 0°C. for a few weeks. Seed thus vernalized acquires properties of seed of spring varieties in that, sown in spring, it produces a crop in the summer of the same year. Vernalization as a practical technique has been developed particularly in Russia. Its significance in agriculture has been demonstrated in that country where it is used, e.g. to avoid killing of winter cereals in the severe winter months. Other possibilities arising from the treatment, e.g. introduction of a crop plant into a new area with a growing season shorter than that under which it normally grows, are being explored. The cold stimulus is perceived by the apical meristem (in embryo; or by apical bud of older plant). Factor that induces flowering has been shown capable of movement in some plants, e.g. grafting bud of a cold treated plant on to untreated plant induces response in buds of latter, i.e. factor acts like a hormone. Mechanism of vernalization unknown; in some plants same response can be obtained by treatment with gibberellin. Effect can be reversed in some plants by exposure to high temperature in anaerobic conditions.

near vernalization in Knolik


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