abdul hamid ii


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abdul hamid ii - Abdul Hamid II (1843-1918)
abdul hamid ii - Sultan of Turkey. Born Sept. 22, 1842, second son of the Sultan Abdul Mejid, he became sultan on Aug. 31, 1876, on the deposition of his brother Murad V. His long reign witnessed many changes in Turkey, mainly losses of territory and increased foreign control over the Ottoman government and finances. A clever diplomatist, he skilfully played oft' the Powers of Europe against one another, but his empire was always in disorder, and the Armenian massacres in 1896 won for him the titles of The Great Assassin and Abdul the Damned. In April, 1909, the Young Turks under Enver Bey rose in revolt, and the National Assembly voted his deposition. Accepting his fate without a struggle, he became a state captive at Salonica, and in 1915 he was removed, first to Smyrna and then to Magnesia. Abdul Hamid was largely responsible for the influence gained by Germany in Turkey. He died in Constantinople, Feb. 11, 1918. See Abdul Hamid, Edwin Pears, 1917.

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abdul ilah, ameer

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