academy defined in 1939 yearacademy - Academy (Gr. alcademeia);
academy - Originally the name of a public park and gymnasium N.W. of Athens, named after its supposed former owner, the hero Academies. In its olive groves Plato taught for nearly 50 years, and after his death it remained the haunt of Greek scholars until Justinian closed the old pagan schools in a.d. 529. Phases in the interpretation of the Platonic doctrines have been named the Old, the Middle, and the New Academies.
The term is now most exactly used in reference to any society for the disinterested pursuit of one or more of the arts and sciences. In this modern sense the earliest academy was the Museum at Alexandria founded by Ptolemy Soter during the 3rd century b.c. Here the finest scholars came from Greece and from the East, all the known arts and sciences were taught, and a great library came into being. The Jews, and later the Arabs, took it as model for their own learned institutions. Alcuin formed a similar establishment for Charlemagne at S. Martin's, Tours, in a.d. 796. Belgium is said to have had an academy in the 12th century, and the Academy of Floral Games, founded at Toulouse in connexion with the Troubadours, has continued in existence to modern times. But it was in Italy, during the Renaissance period, that the academy, as an association of learned men, attained to fuller development. Under Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464) was founded the Platonic Academy, the chief representative of which was Marsilius Ficinus; other academies were associated with the names of Laurentius Valla (Academy of Naples) and Pom-ponius Laetus (Academy of Rome). The Accademia della Crusca set the standard of the modern written language of Italy. Another early Italian academy was the Accademia del Cimento, founded in 1657 with the object of carrying on scientific experiments.
Below is a list of the leading academic or similar institutions in different countries:
academy of gbeat britainThe number of societies and associations devoted to various branches of learning in Great Britain, the Dominions, and the Colonies is very large. A list is given in the Year Book of Scientific and Learned Societies. The most importaut include the Royal Society (1662), the Royal Institution (1799), the British Association for the advancement of science (1831), the Royal Academy of Arts, the British Academy for the promotion of historical, philosophical, and philological studies, the Royal Geographical Society (1830), the Royal Historical Society (1868), and the Society of Antiquaries (1751).
academy of irelandThe Dublin Royal Society (1750); the Royal Irish Academy (1752); the Royal Hibernian Society (1803).
academy of franceIn addition to the five academies that compose the Institute of France, there are the Academie de Medecine (1820), the National Society of French Antiquaries (formerly the Celtic Academy, founded 1805), and academies in leading provincial cities.
academy of belgiumThe Royal Academy of Science, Letters, and Fine Arts, Brussels(1773). holland. The Royal Netherlands Institute of Sciences, Am-sterdam(1808), and learned societies at Rotterdam, Utrecht, Haarlem, and Midr delburg.
academy of poetugalThe Royal Academy of Sciences (1779).
academy of spainThe Royal Spanish Academy, founded in 1713 for the study and preservation of the Castilian language.
scandinavia. The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences, Copenhagen (1742); the Royal Society of Sciences, Trondhjem (1760); the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (founded, 1739, by Hop-ken and Linnaeus); the Academy of Uppsala for the study of Scandinavian languages (1720); the Societas Scientarum, Helsinki (1838).
academy of russiaThe Academy of Leningrad, formerly the Imperial Academy of Sciences, founded by Catherine the Great in 1728.
academy of italyThe Royal Academy of Sciences, Turin (1750), and similar academies in other principal cities; the Accademia Ercolanese, founded in 1755 to deal with antiquities discovered at Herculaueum; the Pontifical Academy, reconstituted in 1936 by Pius XI. Academies of the fine arts are at Turin, Milan, Florence, Mantua, Naples, Venice, and Palermo. The last two cities also have medical academies.
academy of germanyThe Academia Naturae Curiosorum (academy of those curious about nature), founded 1662 and later known as the Academia Leopoldina; and the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Berlin (founded, 1700, by Frederick I).
academy of hungaryThe Academy of Sciences, Budapest. In Czechoslovakia, Prague has a famous academy. In Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria there are academies and learned societies at Bukareat, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Sofia.
In the East there are at least two institutions which should be mentioned: the Union of Sciences, founded at Constantinople, now Istanbul, in 1851, and the Egyptian Institute at Alexandria (1859), which has issued various reports of considerable interest.
academy of united statesThe first example of a modern academy was the American Philosophical Society, founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin, who was its president every year until his death. Other similar institutions are the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); the Philadelphian Academy of Natural Science (1812), the American Academy of Political and Social Science (1886); the Washington National Academy of Sciences (1898). Perhaps the most remarkable institution of its kind is the Smithsonian Institution, founded in 1846 with money left by the Englishman James Smithson,. which has been responsible for the production of numerous important works on mathematical, physical, historical, and economic subjects. See British Academy; Royal Society; Royal Academy of Arts; Academic Erancaise: Accademia della Crusca; Smithsonian Institution.
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