accidents defined in 1939 yearaccidents - Accidents;
accidents - These may be divided into general and industrial. The former are due largely to vehicular traffic. Road accidents in Great Britain increased steadily to a peak figure in 1941 of 9,169 killed; then a decline occurred and in 1943 there were 122,536 casualties of which 5,796 were fatal. As wartime black-out rules probably affected totals for the worse, and the disappearance of many cars from the road for the better, the figures for the last full year of peace, 1938, are more representative: 233,359 casualties, of which 6,648 were fatal. In 1943 there were 768 persons killed and 2,983 seriously injured on the railways. Responsibility for reducing accidents as far as possible rests on the Ministry of Transport and the police. The Minister holds inquiries into all considerable accidents caused by public vehicles, and in the years before the Second Great War promoted measures to make road travel safer: speed limits, multiple tracks, pedestrian crossings, traffic lights, roundabouts. Drivers of cars are compulsorily insured against third-party risk. If negligence on the part of a company or corporation or individual can be proved, sufferers can obtain compensation. Insurance against railway accidents is obtainable for a few shillings on a journey, as well as by policies from insurance companies.
Industrial accidents are those which happen in the course of one's occupation. In the United Kingdom in 1938 they numbered 442,787, of which 2,492 were fatal. The largest group were mining accidents (983 killed, 162,097 injured), followed by those in factories (735 killed, 219,907 injured). Reportable accidents in factories had risen by 1942 to 314,630, of which 1,363 were fatal. The duty of reducing their number as far as possible rests on the Ministry of Labour, which acts through a staff of inspectors. Details of accidents having been reported, consideration of them may lead to preventive legislation. Law and invention have both contributed to the greater safety of industrial workers. Persons injured at employment have hitherto been provided for by the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1925, the Supplementary Allowances Act, 1940, and the Temporary Increases Act, 1943. After a fatal accident a dependent survivor with children could receive a maximum of Â£700; the victim of a non-fatal accident could receive 40s. weekly, or 50s. after 13 weeks, with 5s. extra for each child under 15 years. According to the Government measure of 1946, Workmen's Compensation is regarded not as part of employers' liability but as a social service. Benefits are paid by the state according to the degree of disablement, the period of incapacity, and the number of dependents. Insurance policies against industrial accidents are obtainable from the chief companies. Much scientific research has been undertaken into the physical and psychological factors tending towards individual "accident-proneness." The first international conference for the prevention of industrial accidents was held at Milan in 1912.
near accidents in Knolik
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