aden defined in 1939 year

aden - Aden;
aden - Town and territory near the entrance to the Red Sea. Built on a volcanic peninsula of the same name, 5 m. long by 3 m. broad, 105 m. E. of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, the town is an important and strongly fortined coaling station and port of call for P. & O. and other liners on the seaway to and from India, and was given a fresh significance by the construction of the Suez Canal. It is the capital of a settlement named after itself, and of the Aden Protectorate, is a cable and wireless station, and has two harbours, though only the inner harbour, on the W. side of the peninsula, is of commercial value. On the isthmus connecting Aden with the mainland are four salt works. The isthmus is a sandy flat just above sea level; pans are excavated in the sand and seawater is let into them through sluices at the spring tides. The water then evaporates. A deposit of about six inches of salt is thus obtained every two months.

The climate is hot, but not unhealthy. Water is scarce and is obtained chiefly from wells near Sheikh Othman, whence it is conducted for about 6 m. through a 15-inch main. Practically all foodstuffs have to be imported. The settlement has an area of 75 sq. m. and a pop. of about 48,500.

For many years Aden was administered from India, but since April 1, 1937, it has been a British crown colony. The islands of Perim and Kuria Muria off the Arabian coast, and Sokotra off the African coast, form part of the colony; and the small island of Kamaian in the Red Sea, 200 m. N. of Perim, is also administered under the control of the government of Aden. The Protectorate, area about 112,000sq. m., comprises the region, mainly desert, between the kingdom of Yemen and the dominions of the sultan of Muscat and Oman, with a coastline 750 m. long. It include s the Hadhramant and a large part of the Rub al Khali (Sandy Desert). The population is estimated at 600,000, subjects of sheikhs in treaty relations with Britain.

The trade of Aden largely consists of transhipment. Oil, coffee, gums, hides, tobacco, grain, sugar, etc., are exported to an annual value of about £4,000,000; cotton and other commodities are imported, to an annual value of about £5,000,000.

Part of Arabia Felix, Aden was of considerable importance in Roman times. Unsuccessfully occupied by the Portuguese in 1513, it fell to the Turks in 1538, and was fortified by Solyman the Magnificent. Seized in 1735 by the sultan of Labej it was the object of many struggles until 1839, when it was annexed by Great Britain as a. result of numerous outrages on British ships by the sultan and people of the native Arab state of Labej. Perirn was occupied by the British in 1857. Sokotra has been a protectorate since !8s6. The boundaries of the Aden protectorate, delimited in 1904, were extended by treaties in 1934 and 1938. A command of the R.A.F. was established at Aden in 1928, and during the Second Great War the area became the base for attacks on Italian E. Africa. 1940-41.

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