alloys, phosphor



alloys, phosphor defined in 1909 year

alloys, phosphor - Alloys, Phosphor;
alloys, phosphor - For the preparation of phosphorus compounds of metals, for example, phosphor-copper, Dr. Schwarz gives the following directions: A mixture of bone-ash, silica,, and carbon, is placed in a crucible, and upon it a layer of granulated copper, which is in turn covered with the above mixture. The lid of the crucible is luted on. To make it melt more easily some carbonate of soda and glass may be added, or a mixture of pulverised milk-glass with charcoal and powdered coke is used for lining and covering it. Take, for example, 14 parts of silica, 88 of bone-ash, and 4 of powdered carbon. This is mixed with 4 parts of soda and 4 of powdered glass, stirred up with a little gum water, and used to line the crucible. When this is dry, the copper is put in, and covered with I the same mass, and the whole is melted at a bright red heat. The copper obtained flows well, and has a reddish-grey colour. It contains 0.50 to 0.51 per cent, of phosphorus.

The simplest method for introducing phosphorus into bronze is to stick a bar of the phosphorus into a tube of pinchbeck, one end of which is hammered together, and closed tightly. After the phosphorus is put in, the other end is closed too. When the metal, which contains 32 parts of copper to 5 of zinc and 1 of tin, is melted, the tube charged with phosphorus is pushed down in it to the bottom of the crucible by means of bent tongs. The stick of phosphorus must always be kept under water until it is about to go into the pinchbeck tube, when it must be carefully dried, as the presence of any moisture would be sure to cause the metal to spurt or fly about.

Another way of introducing the phosphorus is as follows: Get about 2 ft. of iron barrel from a gas-fitter, the bore, a little larger than the sticks of phosphorus; make an iron-plug to closely fit the bore, and then drive it down one end of the pipe until the space remaining will hold the quantity of phosphorus you wish to mix in the bath, minding not to split the barrel in driving in the plug. Make a plug of tin about 1/8 in. thick to fit in the bore; now introduce your phosphorus into the space formed by the iron plug, and just tap the tin plug into the end of the barrel with a hammer. Stir the tin-plugged end about in the molten metal; the tin plug soon melts, letting out the phosphorus in the bronze bath.

In 1868, Montefiore and Kunzel, of Liege, Belgium, observed that the tin in bronze progressively decreases by oxidation during smelting, the tin oxide going partly into the slag and being partly dissolved in the molten metal, so that bronze originally composed of 10.10 per cent, tin and 89.90 copper, after the 4th melting contained only 8.52 tin and 91.48 copper. It was found that "poling" (stirring up the molten metal with a wooden stick) eliminated the oxide combined with copper, but had no effect on the tin oxide. Kunzel then tried the introduction of a little phosphorus, or phosphuret of tin or copper, into the mass, with the desired result. Bars cast from the same crucible of metal under the three conditions named gave the following figures:

Conditions of the Mass of Metals.Resistance: Absolute Lb. per Square Inch.Resistance: Elastic Lb. per Square Inch.Lengthening until Rupture, %
Old bronze22,98217,0202.0
Old bronze, poled24,92217,7092.8
Old bronze, deocsidized with phosphorus33,91619,3006.8


Other experiments in phosphorising alloys of copper, nickel, manganese, and iron, were not satisfactory; nor was that of using sodium instead of phosphorus as a deoxidiser. The action of phosphorus in bronze is (1) to eliminate the oxides, and (2) to make the tin capable of assuming crystalline structure, thus increasing the homogeneity of the alloy, and thereby its elasticity and absolute resistance. Among other properties, phosphor-bronze emits sparks under friction much less readily than gun-metal or copper; it is peculiarly adapted for friction-bearing; is easily rolled into sheets, and is very tough in that form; and oxidises in sea-water at about one third the rate of copper.

Phosphor Bronze, which is largely used as a substitute for bronze and gun-metal compositions, for gearing, bearings, wire rope, etc., is an alloy of copper and tin, which has been fluxed by the introduction of a variable quantity of phosphorus, which is generally added in the form of phosphide of copper or phosphide of tin. Phosphide of copper is prepared by heating a mixture of 4 parts of super-phosphate of lime, 2 parts of granulated copper and 1 part of finely pulverised coal in a crucible at not too high a temperature.

near alloys, phosphor in Knolik


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