alloys, type-metal defined in 1909 yearalloys, type-metal - Alloys, Type-metal;
alloys, type-metal - (a) This alloy, used for printer's type, is often composed of 6 parts lead, and 2 antimony. It is of a blackish-grey colour, and is softer than tin and copper, but a little harder than lead. Several of these alloys, having the following compositions by weight:
have been submitted to a new examination by F. de Jussieu, who published his results in a pamphlet. The chief portion of this is devoted to the experimental recognition and exposition of facts of interest to the purely scientific metallurgist, and especially in reference to the liquation and crystallisation upon reduction of temperature of these alloys; but there are a few things intercalated which may prove of practical importance. Amongst these is the fact that those alloys of lead and antimony, whose constituents are the same in kind as common type-metal, are susceptible of assuming a high degree of hardness when rapidly cooled against a cold metallic surface, showing a perfect analogy with the property of hardening by chilling eminently possessed by certain cast-irons, but more or less shown by all known varieties of that metal. ('Engineer.')
(b) 9 parts lead to 1 antimony forms common type metal; 7 lead to 1 antimony is used for large and soft type;6 lead and 1 antimony for large type; 5 lead and 1 antimony for middle type; 4 lead and 1 antimony for small type; and 3 lead to 1 antimony for the smallest kinds of type.
(c) Fesquet gives the following combinations:
Large typeLarge type: (a) 10 lead, 2.5 copper; (b) 9 lead, 1 antimony, 0.5 arsenic; (e) 8 copper, 2 tin, 0.5 bismuth; (d) 2 copper, 2 tin, 2 bismuth; (e) 73 copper, 27 zinc; (f) 5 copper, 67 zinc, 25 tin, 3 nickel; (g) 12 tin, 16 zinc, 64 lead, 8 antimony.
Music platesMusic plates: (a) 5 to 7.5 tin, 5 to 2.5 antimony: (b) 16 lead, 1 antimony; (a) 8 lead, 2 antimony, 1.5 tin; (d) 4 lead, 2 antimony, 1 zinc; (e) 7.5 lead, 2.5 antimony, 0.5 copper.
Printing typePrinting type: 4 parts lead, 1 antimony.
Small type and StereotypesSmall type and Stereotypes: (a) 9 parts lead, 2 antimony, 2 bismuth; (b) 16 lead, 4 antimony, 5 tin. (c) For every 6 lb. of lead add 1 lb. antimony. The antimony should be broken into very small pieces, and thrown on the top of the lead when it is at red heat. The cheapest and simplest mode of making a stereotype metal is to melt old type, and to every 14 lb. add about 6 lb. of grocers' tea-chest lead. To prevent any smoke arising from the melting of tea-chest lead, it is necessary to melt it over an ordinary fire-place, for the purpose of cleansing it, which can be done by throwing in a small piece of tallow about the size of a nut, and stir it briskly with the ladle, when the impurities will rise to the surface, and can be skimmed off. In the mixing of lead and type-metal, see that there are no pieces of zinc amongst it, the least portion of which will spoil the whole of the other metal that is mixed with it. Zinc is of a bluish-white colour; its hue is intermediate between that of lead and tin. It takes about 80° more heat than lead to bring it into fusion; therefore should any metal float on the top of the lead, do not try to mix it, but immediately take it off with the ladle.
near alloys, type-metal in Knolik
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