blackings, leather polishes - blackings, leather polishes; blackings, leather polishes - Most leather articles while in use require the periodical application of a preservative varnish to give them a finished appearance, and protect them from decay and surface wear. Such varnishes go by various names, but are most commonly known as "blacking," being originally intended to give a black polish. Blacking is a pasty compound used especially on the "uppers" and the edges of the soles and heels of boots and shoes. There are numerous methods of manufacturing this substance; but in nearly all, the base is a black colouring matter, commonly bone charcoal, mixed with substances which acquire a gloss by friction, such as sugar and oil. The carbon employed should be in the form of a very deep, finely powdered black. Since it always contains lime carbonate and phosphate, it is treated with a mineral acid in order to decompose these salts; a mixture of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids is frequently used, the salts produced being lime acid phosphate, sulphate and chloride. The lime sulphate gives consistence to the pasty mass, and the two other salts being deliquescent help to keep the leather flexible. No more acid should be used than is sufficient to decompose these salts, or the leather will be injured. It is probably to prevent this that some makers add a small quantity of alkali to the blacking. Sometimes powdered gall-nuts, iron sulphate, indigo, and Prussian blue are incorporated with the blacking in order to impart to it a good colour. Fatty or oily matters are also sometimes added in order to preserve the flexibility of the leather, and to neutralise any excess of acid which may remain. The consistence of different blackings varies widely.
Liquid Boot Polishes
The well-known liquid blacking of Day and Martin is composed in the following manner. Very finely ground animal charcoal, or bone-black, is mixed with sperm oil till the two are thoroughly commingled. Raw sugar or treacle, mixed with a small portion of vinegar, is then added to the mass. Next a small measure of dilute sulphuric acid is introduced, which by converting into sulphate a large proportion of the lime contained in the animal charcoal, thickens the mixture into the required pasty consistence. When all effervescence has subsided, but while the compound is still warm, vinegar is poured in until the mass is sufficiently thinned; then it is ready to be bottled for the market.
Animal charcoal, 5 oz.; treacle 4 oz.; sweet oil, ¾ oz.; triturate until the oil is thoroughly incorporated, then stir in gradually ¼ pint each vinegar and beer lees.
Animal charcoal, 1 lb.; sperm oil, 2 oz.; beer and vinegar, each 1 pint, or sour beer, 1 qt.
Bryant and James's indiarubber blacking. Indiarubber in very fine shreads, 18 oz.; hot rapeseed oil, 9 lb. (1 gal.); animal charcoal in fine powder, 60 lb.; treacle, 45 lb.; gum arabic, 1 lb., previously dissolved in vinegar, No. 24 strength, 20 gal. The mixture is triturated in a colour-mill until perfectly smooth, then placed in a wooden vessel, and sulphuric acid is added in small successive quantities amounting altogether to 12 lb. This is stirred for ½ hour daily for 14 days, then 3 lb. of finely-ground gum Arabic are added, and the stirring is repeated for an additional 14 days, when the blacking will be ready for use.
A good liquid polish is made by mixing together 4 oz. of gum arabic; 1½ oz. of treacle or coarse moist sugar; ¼ pint of good black ink; 2 oz. of strong vinegar; 1 oz. of rectified spirit ofwine; and 1 oz. of sweet oil. Dissolve the gum in the ink, add the oil, and shake together until they are thoroughly mixed. Then add the vinegar, and, lastly the spirit. Keep in a tightly corked bottle.
Acme blacking. To 1 gal. rectified spirit is added 21 dr. blue aniline, and 31 dr. Bismarck brown aniline, the solution of the two last being effected by agitation for 8-12 hours. After the solution is completed, the mass is allowed to settle, and the liquid portion is drawn off by spigots above the sediment, and filtered if necessary. The alcohol is placed in the apparatus first, then the colours, and the mixture agitated every hour for a space of 10-15 minutes. Of this liquid, ¼ gal. is added to 1 gal. rectified spirit, and in this are dissolved 11 oz. camphor, 16 oz. Venice turpentine, 36 oz. shellac. To 1 qt. benzine, add 3 1/5 fl. oz. castor-oil, and 1 3/5 fl. oz. boiled linseed-oil. The two solutions are then united by agitation, but should not be allowed to stand over 2 days in any vessel of iron or zinc, as in the presence of the gums the colours will be decomposed by contact with zinc in 8 days, and with iron in 18-24 days.
A quantity of ordinary starch is dissolved in hot water, and while still hot, oil or wax is added; the mixture is stirred and allowed to cool. When cold, a small quantity of iodine is added to give a bluish-black colour. To 1 gal. of this are added 8 oz. of a solution of iron per chloride or other per salt, a small quantity of gallic or tannic acid(or both), and sometimes about 2 dr. of oil of cloves with 8 oz. glycerine. The whole is thoroughly stirred.
Nicolet, of Lyons, prepares boot blacking by dissolving 150 parts wax and 15 of tallow in a mixture of 200 of linseed-oil, 20 of litharge, and 100 of molasses, at a temperature of 230° to 250° F. (110° to 120° C.). After this, 103 parts lampblack are added, and when cold it is diluted with 280 of spirits of turpentine, and finally is mixed with a solution of 5 of gum lac and 2 of aniline violet in 35 of alcohol.
Hein, in Kaufering, makes another kind of shoe blacking by melting 90 parts beeswax or ceresine, 30 of spermaceti, and 350 of spirits of turpentine, with 20 of asphalt varnish, and adds 10 of borax, 20 of lampblack, 10 of Prussian blue, and 5 of nitrobenzol.
Brunner uses 10 parts bone-black, 10 of glucose syrup, 5 of sulphuric acid, 20 of train oil, 4 of water, and 2 of soda carbonate. The bone-black and glucose are stirred with the acid in. a porcelain vessel until the whole mass is homogeneous and has a shining black surface when at rest. The soda is dissolved in a little water, and boiled with the oil under constant stirring until it forms a thick liquid;then the other mixture is stirred into it. By varying the proportions of these two mixtures, the blacking is made thinner and softer, or harder and firmer. The substances sold as French polish are mostly composed of these ingredients. In this and all other kinds of shoe blacking made with bone-black and sulphuric acid, the precaution must be observed of stirring rapidly and evenly after the acid is added, otherwise lumps will be formed that are difficult to crush, and the blacking will have a granular condition that should not exist. Good shoe blacking must always remain soft, and show a smooth uniform surface when applied to the leather.
A good liquid blacking may be prepared by mixing 3 lb. Lampblack with 1 qt. stale beer, and ½ pint sweet oil, adding thereto 1 oz. treacle, ¼ oz. green copperas, and ¼ oz. logwood extract. This furnishes a blacking which polishes easily and well.
Cheap and good shoe blacking. - To 1 lb. best ivory black add 1 lb. treacle, 8 table spoonsfuls sweet oil, dissolve 1 oz. gum arabic in 2 qt. vinegar, with ¼ lb. vitriol (sulphuric acid).
Guttapercha. - To 30 parts syrup, contained in a boiler, add 9 of lampblack and 1½ of finest bone-black, and mix the whole intimately together. Heat 1½ part guttapercha, cut into small pieces, in a kettle over a coal-fire, until it is nearly all melted, add to it gradually, under constant stirring, 2½ parts olive-oil, and when the guttapercha is all dissolved, ½ part stear in. Pour the latter mixture, while still warm, very slowly and gradually into the first-mentioned mixture, and when the whole has been thoroughly incorporated, add a solution of 2 1/10 part gum Senegal in 6 of water, likewise stirring. Finally, the product may be aromatised by the addition of 1 1/10 part rosemary or lavender oils. This blacking produces a fine gloss of a deep black. It is not injurious to leather.
Take ivory- or bone-black, any quantity, and to every pound put 1½ oz. measure of sulphuric acid, and well triturate it. It will become damp, like snuff. Next add cod oil, 2 oz. to the lb. If to be liquid, add treacle, 3 oz. to the lb., and small beer to mix, or stale beer if for paste, enough to make up into a paste. Foots-sugar is preferable to treacle, and a better black is got by adding ¼ oz. to the lb. of Prussian blue. It is improved if laid up light for a day or two after the first manipulation, and again after the second, as a decomposition takes place.
A fine, brilliant, elastic dressing for leather can be made as follows: To 3 lb. of boiling water add, with continual stirring, ½ lb. white wax, 1 oz., transparent glue, 2 oz. gum senegal, 1½ oz. white soap, and 2 oz. brown candy. Finally, add 2½ oz. alcohol, and, after the whole is cooled, 3 oz. fine Frankfort black. The dressing is thinly applied to the leather with a soft brush, and after it is dried it is rubbed with a piece of fine pumice and polished with a stiff brush.
7 lb. each ivory black and treacle, well mixed with 2 qt. Boiling water; add 2 lb. 10 oz. vitriol, and the previously thin liquid will become quite thick. After the effervescence has ceased, add 1 pint of any common oil - fish-oil is the best. If you want it liquid, add stale beer or vinegar.
Useful blacking for leather maybe made thus: Dissolve 11 lb. of green vitriol and 5 lb. tartaric acid in 9 gal. water. After the settling, draw off the clear liquid; then boil 16 lb. logwood with about 18 gal. water, and 11 gal. of the fluid. Let the boiled mixture stand for about 8 days, pour it off from the sediment, dissolve in it 2 lb. grape sugar, and mix this liquid with the green vitriol solution. The blacking so obtained may be made still brighter by mixing the logwood decoction with 4 lb. aniline black-blue before the addition of the vitriol. The application of the blacking is very simple. The leather is first well-brushed with a solution of soda, or still better with a spirit of salammoniac, in 25 times as much water, to get rid of the grease. The blacking is then applied with the proper brush for the purpose.
Finishing black. - Mix together ½ oz. each gelatine and indigo, 1 oz. logwood extract, 2 oz. crown soap, 8 oz. softened glue, and 1 qt. vinegar; heat the whole over a slow fire, and stir until thoroughly mixed. Apply with a soft brush, and polish with a woollen cloth.
Mix a quantity of bone-black with equal parts of neat's-foot oil and brown sugar, in proportions to produce a thick paste; then with vinegar and sulphuric acid in proportions of 3 parts of the former to 1 of the latter.
Melt 2 lb. wax, and add ½ lb. washed and well-dried litharge by screening it through a fine sieve; then add 6 oz. ivory black, and stir until cool, but not cold; add enough turpentine to reduce it to a thin paste, after which add a little birch or other essential oil to prevent it from souring.
A liquid black is made by mixing 3 oz. ivory black with 1 tablespoonful citric acid, 2 oz. brown sugar, and a small quantity of vinegar, afterward, adding 1 oz. each sulphuric and muriatic acids; mix the whole together, and add a sufficient quantity of vinegar to make 1 pint in all.
A German journal gives the following: Mix 200 parts shellac with 1000 of spirit (95 per cent.) in a well-stoppered bottle. Keep in a warm place for 2-3 days, shaking frequently. Separately dissolve 25 parts Marseilles soap in 375 of warmed spirit (25 percent.), and to the solution add 40 of glycerine. Shake well and mix with the shellac solution. To the mixture add 5 parts nigrosin dissolved in 125 of spirit. Well close the vessel and shake energetically, and then leave the mixture in a warm place for a fortnight.
Ivory black, 6 lb.; treacle, 4 lb.; gum arabic (dissolved in hot water), 2 oz.; vinegar, 2 gal.; sulphuric acid, 2½ lb.; India rubber dissolved in about 1 pint of oil, 2 oz. Mix well together. This blacking may be applied by means of a brush, or a small sponge attached to a piece of twisted wire.
Boot Top Liquid. - Oxalic acid, 1 oz.; white vitriol, 1 oz.; water, 30 oz. Dissolve, and apply with a sponge to the leather, which should have been previously washed with water; then wash the composition off with water, and dry. This liquid is poisonous.
A waterproof blacking, which will give a fine polish without rubbing, and will not injure the leather: 18 parts beeswax, 6 spermaceti, 66 turpentine oil, 5 asphalt varnish, 1 powdered borax, 5 vine twig (Frankfort) black, 2 Prussian blue, 1 nitrobenzol. Melt the wax, add powdered borax, and stir till a kind of jelly has formed. In another pan melt the spermaceti, add the asphalt varnish, previously mixed with the turpentine oil, stir well, and add to the wax. Lastly add the colour previously rubbed smooth with a little of the mass. The nitrobenzol gives fragrance.
Most of the latest recipes for paste blackings, as put up in fancy tins, have cod-liver oil as a chief ingredient, hence their higher cost than the ordinary paste blackings put up in paper.
Mix 10 lb. of bone-black with 2½ lb. sulphuric acid, add 2 pints of cod-liver oil, then 2 lb. of treacle, and 2½ oz. of finely powdered Prussian blue. Mix well together and reduce the stiffness, if necessary, with stale beer.
1 lb. beeswax melted in an earthenware jar. Stir in ¼ lb. ivory black, 2 oz. Prussian blue (ground in oil), and 2 oz. oil of turpentine. Lastly add ½ oz. of copal varnish. This is applied with a brush, and polished with a cloth or velvet pad.
Bryant and James's indiarubber blacking (see Liquid boot polishes (4)) may be made in a solid form by reducing the proportion of vinegar from 20 gal. to 12. The compound then only requires stirring for about 6 or 7 days in order to prepare it for use, and it may be liquefied by subsequent addition of vinegar.
Dr. Artus manufactures blacking from the following materials: Lampblack, 3 or 4 lb.; animal charcoal, ½ lb.; are well mixed with glycerine and treacle, 5 lb. Meanwhile gutta-percha, 2½ oz., is cautiously fused in an iron or copper saucepan, and to it is added olive-oil, 10 oz., with continual stirring, and afterwards stearine, 1 oz. The warm mass is added to the former mixture, and then a solution of 5 oz. gum Senegal, in 1½ lb. water, and 1 dr. each of rosemary and lavender oils may be added. For use it is diluted with 3-4 parts of water, and tends to keep the leather soft, and render it more durable.
All ordinary paste blackings require to be mixed with some liquid before application, causing considerable waste. It is claimed for the subjoined method of preparation, that by its means the blacking is rendered of such a condition that when merely dipped in water or other solvents the required quantity can be rubbed on to the article to be blacked without the cake crumbling or breaking up. The ingredients of the blacking are those in ordinary use, but it is brought to the required consistence by combination with Russian tallow, in the proportion of 3 per cent., and casting the mass into the desired forms. These may be cylindrical, etc., and may be enclosed in covers of cardboard, tinfoil, etc., in which the blacking can slide, so that when one end is pushed out for use, the remainder acts as a handle. The exposed end, when damped by immersion or otherwise, can be rubbed on the article without crumbling. The ivory black (animal charcoal) which has been used in the preparation of white paraffin, according to Letchford and Nation's patent, may be conveniently used for making blacking.
The addition of sulphuric acid to animal charcoal and sugar produces lime sulphate and a soluble acid lime phosphate, which makes a tenacious paste. Thus: Animal charcoal, 8 parts; molasses, 4; hydrochloric acid, 1; sulphuric acid, 2. These are well mixed. A liquid blacking may be produced from this by the addition of the necessary proportion of water.
To 1 1b. animal charcoal add 4 oz. commercial sulphuric acid; work them well together, and when the acid has done its duty upon the charcoal add 4 oz. fish or colza oil; stir the mixture till the oil is thoroughly in corporated, then pour in gradually a strong solution of washing soda or other suitable alkali, and continue the stirring till ebullition ceases, or the acid is neutralised. Next add about 8 oz. treacle, and then pour in a solution of gelatine and glycerine, in quantity about 2 qt. if liquid blacking is required, but less will suffice to produce paste. The solution of glycerine and gelatine is made by dissolving the best size in hot water, in the proportion of 4 parts water to 1 of size, and then adding to every qt. of the liquid 1½ oz. glycerine. The addition of the glycerine and gelatine preparation gives great brilliancy, depth of colour, and permanency to the blacking when applied to leather, and at the same time makes it damp-proof; besides which the alkali his the effect of neutralising the sulphuric acid employed, and thus prevents the injurious action of that acid on the leather, as in the case of most ordinary blackings.
A leather varnish or polish is prepared by Gunther, of Berlin, by mixing a filtered solution of 80 parts shellac in 15 of alcohol, with 3 of wax, 2 of castor oil, and a sufficient quantity of pigment. The mixture is evaporated in vacua to a syrup. The varnish is applied to the leather with a brush moistened with alcohol or with a colourless alcoholic varnish.
Soften 2 lb. good glue, and melt it in an ordinary glue kettle; then dissolve 2 lb. Castile soap in warm water and pour it into the glue; stir until well mixed, and add ½ lb. yellow wax cut into small pieces; stir well until the wax is melted, then add J pint neat's-foot oil and enough lampblack to give the desired colour. When thoroughly mixed, it is ready for use.
Waterproof. - Melt together 4 oz. black rosin and 6 oz. beeswax over a slow fire; when thoroughly dis solved, add 1 oz. lampblack and J Ib. finely powdered Prussian blue; stir the mixture well, and add sufficient tur pentine to make a thin paste. Apply with a cloth and polish with a brush.
Liebig's. - Mix bone-black in ½ its weight of molasses, and 1/8 its weight of olive-oil, to which add ½ its weight of hydrochloric acid and ¼ its weight of strong sulphuric acid, with a sufficient quantity of water to produce a paste.
Molasses, 1 lb.; ivory black, 1¼ lb.; sweet oil, 2 lb. Rub together in a Wedgwood mortar till all the ingredients form a perfectly smooth homogeneous mixture; then add a little lemon juice or strong vinegar - say the juice of one lemon, or about a wineglassful of strong vinegar - and thoroughly incorporate, with just enough water added slowly to gain the required consistency.
Ivory black, 2 lb.; molasses, 1 lb.; olive-oil, ¼ lb.; oil of vitriol, ¼ lb. Add water to gain required consistency.
Take 1 part ivory black 1/8 of melted tallow, and work up well in a mortar. Incorporate with this paste ½ part treacle, ¼ of sulphuric acid, and 1/8 of spirits of salt. This will form an excellent paste blacking.
The following compositions are prepared:
Gum arabic, 8 oz.; molasses, 2 oz.; ink, ½ pint; vinegar, 2 oz.; spirit of wine, 2 oz. Dissolve the gum and molasses in the ink and vinegar, strain, and then add the spirit of wine.
Mix together the whites of 2 eggs, 1 teaspoonful spirits of wine,-1 oz. sugar, and as much finely pulverised ivory black as may be required to produce the necessary shade of black. Apply with a sponge, and polish with a piece of silk.
Mix together ½ lb. each ivory black, purified lampblack, and pulverised indigo, 3 oz. dissolved gum arabic, 4 oz. brown sugar, and ¼ oz. glue dissolved in 1 pint water; heat the whole to a boil over a slow fire, then remove, stir until cold, and roll into balls.
Polish, for Glace Kid Boots
Take 20 oz. of methylated spirits and dissolve in it 3 oz. of pale gum sandarach. It will require frequent shaking to dissolve the gum. Add ivory black and just a little glycerine. The latter aids in keeping the polish.
Brown Boot Polish
½ lb. turpentine, 5 oz. white wax, ½ lb. water. Boil the wax in the water and add a good pinch of potassium carbonate. Stir till nearly cold, then add the turpentine (away from the fire). This is applied with a brush or sponge, and polished with a velvet pad.
Put ¼ lb. pearlash in a little water to boil and scrape into it 2 lb. beeswax and 1 lb. good yellow soap. Let the whole boil until all is dissolved. Stir well until the mixture is of even consistence and allow it to cool a little. Next mix in 4 lb. of turpentine, and, lastly, ¼ lb. methylated spirits. Water can be added, if required, to make a cream. The cream is applied to the leather, dry polished with a brush, and then finished with a cloth.
Brazilian wax 8 oz., crude glycerine 14 oz., hard white curd soap 6 lb., Bismarck brown 4 oz., turpentine 3 pints, water ½ gal. Shred the wax and soap and dissolve in the turpentine and water (on a water bath, not directly on the fire), stir in the other ingredients.
½ lb. yellow wax, finely shredded, turpentine 1 pint. Dissolve the wax in the turpentine over a water bath. Dissolve ½ lb. hard white soap in a pint of boiling water. Mix the two solutions while they are hot, then add a little oxalic acid and liquid annatto.
A white paste for brown or light coloured leather boots. Obtain a white glazing ball from a shoemaker (cost ½d.) and soften this down in turpentine. Add ¼ lb. best white wax, broken small, and let the turpentine be sufficient to just cover the two. These ingredients should be in an earthenware jar, Place the jar on the hob, well away from the fire, and, when all are melted, mix well and the paste is ready for use.
Beeswax 2 oz., beef suet 4 oz., rosin 1 oz., neat's-foot oil 2 oz., lampblack 1 oz.; melt together. (2) Yellow wax 8 oz., turpentine 12 oz., powdered indigo 4 dr., drop black 2 oz., paste Prussian blue 1 oz., oil cassia 2 dr. Melt the wax in a water-bath by aid of heat, and add to it 8 oz. of the turpentine. Put the other ingredients into an old mortar, and rub with the remaining 4 oz. into a smooth paste;add to this the wax solution, and stir until it thickens. Apply a small quantity with a stiff brush, and polish with a soft brush.
Carnauba wax 12 oz., dissolve by gentle heat in 2¾ pints of turpentine; add 3 oz. of vegetable black; mix well, and add ½ oz. soap, dissolved in 8 oz. water. Mix thoroughly, and use as usual.
To Black Tan Boots and leave a Glossy Polish
Dissolve about two tablespoonfuls of washing soda in warm water, and apply this to the leather with a piece of flannel. Allow this to dry then-apply cobbler's ink with a hard, brush, allowing this also to dry well into the leather. The boots will then be ready to clean, and will be found to have a fine glossy appearance, which will remain as long as the boots last.
Get a fairly large potato, cut into two or three pieces, and thoroughly rub juice of same into boots. When perfectly dry, the boots will be found to take the blacking excellently, and produce a lasting polish.
Get 5 lb. best tallow, 1 lb. best beeswax, cut up small, and let melt slowly. When thoroughly melted, add a good tablespoonful of Norway tar. Allow to cool, and when wanted, cut a bit out, and melt and rub well into the boots. It keeps the leather soft and pliable, and keeps out all wet.
Carnauba wax 2½ lb., black rosin 4½ lb., vegetable black 1 lb., neat's-foot oil, tallow oil, and linseed-oil, 1 gallon of each. The foregoing soften and preserve the leather as well as making the boots waterproof.
Brown, liquid. Carnauba wax 4 lb., pale rosin 3¾ lb., phosphine substitute ½ oz., linseed-oil 1¼ gal., tallow oil 1 gal., neat's-foot oil 1 gal. Shred the wax and crush the rosin fine. Boil these in the oils. Lastly add the phosphine colouring matter.
Harness Blacking is not made in the same way as boot blacking. The following are some of the methods of preparing the former kind: -
Glue or gelatine, 4 oz.; gum arabic, 3 oz.; water, ¾ pint. Dissolve by heat, and add of treacle, 7 oz.;finely powdered animal charcoal, 5 oz.;and then gently evaporate until the compound is of the proper consistence when cold, stirring all the time. It must be kept corked.
Mutton suet, 2 oz.; bees wax, 6 oz.; melt them, and add sugar candy, 6 oz.; soft soap, 2 oz.; lampblack, 2½ oz.; finely powdered indigo, ½ oz. When thoroughly intermixed, add oil of turpentine, ¼ pint.
Beeswax, 1 lb.; animal charcoal, ¼ lb.; Prussian blue, 1 oz.; ground in linseed-oil, 2 oz.; oil of turpentine, 3 oz.; copal varnish, 1 oz. Mix them well, and form the mass into cakes while it is still warm.
Add to No. 3, while still warm, soft soap, 4 oz.; oil of turpentine, 6 oz.; put into pots or tins while warm.
Isinglass, ¼ oz.; finely powdered indigo, ¼ oz.; soft soap, 4 oz.; glue, 5 oz.; logwood, 4 oz.; vinegar, 2 pints;ground animal charcoal, ¼ oz.; beeswax, 1 oz. Infuse the logwood in the vinegar for some time with gentle heat, and when the colour is thoroughly extracted strain it, and add the other ingredients. Boil till the glue is dissolved, then store in stoneware or glass jars. Said to be very useful for army harness.
Melt 4 oz. mutton suet with 12 oz. beeswax, 12 oz. sugar candy, 4 oz. soft soap dissolved in water, and 2 oz. finely powdered indigo. When melted and well mixed, add ½ pint turpentine. Lay it on with a sponge, and polish with a brush. A good blacking for working harness, which should be cleaned and polished with it at least once a week.
3 sticks black sealing-wax dissolved in ½ pint alcohol, and applied with a sponge, or lac dissolved in alcohol, and coloured with lampblack, answers the same purpose. This is intended for carriage harness; it is quick drying, and hard and liable to crack the leather, so should be applied as seldom as possible.
A good blacking consists of: Hogs' lard, 4 oz.; neat's-foot oil, 16 oz.; yellow wax, 4 oz.; animal charcoal, 20 oz.; brown sugar, 16 oz.; water, 16 oz. Heat the whole to boiling, then stir it until it becomes cool enough for handling, and roll it into balls about 2 in. in diameter.
Soften 2 lb. glue in 1 pint water; dissolve 2 lb. soap (Castile is the best, but dearest) in 1 pint warm water; after the glue has become thoroughly soaked, cook it in a glue-pot, and then turn it into a larger pot; place this over a strong fire, and pour in the soap water, slowly stirring till all is well mixed; then add ½ lb. yellow wax cut into slices - let the mass boil till the wax melts, then add J pint neat's-foot oil and sufficient lampblack to impart a colour; let it boil a few minutes and it will be fit for use.
When harness has become soiled it can be restored by the use of the following French blacking: Stearine, 4½ lb.; turpentine, 6¾ lb.; animal charcoal, 3 oz. The stearine is first beaten into thin sheets with a mallet, then mixed with the turpentine, and heated in a water bath, during which time it must be stirred continually. The colouring matter is added when the mass has become thoroughly heated. It is thrown into another pot, and stirred until cool and thick; if not stirred, it will crystallise, and the parts will separate. When used, it will require warming; it should be rubbed on the leather with a cloth, using very little at a time, and making a very thin coat. When partially dry, it is rubbed with a silk cloth, and will then give a polish equal to that ofnewly varnished leather, without injuring it in any way.
2 oz. shellac, 3 pints alcohol, 14½ pints fish oil, 19 pints West Virginia oil, 1 lb. lampblack, 1 pint spirits of turpentine, 9 pints coal oil; the two first are combined, then the third is added, and all the others are well mixed.
Heat together over a slow fire, 2 oz. white wax and 3 oz. turpentine;when the wax is dissolved, add 1 oz. ivory black and 1 dr. indigo, thoroughly pulverised and mixed; stir the mixture until cold. Apply with a cloth, and polish with a shoe-brush.
An excellent oil for farm and team harness is made of beef tallow and neat's-foot oil as follows: Melt 3 lb. pure tallow, but do not heat it up to a boil; then pour in gradually 1 lb. neat's-foot oil, and stir until the mass is cold; if properly stirred, the two articles will become thoroughly amalgamated, and the grease will be smooth and soft; if not well stirred, the tallow will granulate, and show fine white specks when cold. The addition of a little bone-black will improve this oil for general use.
Melt together 8 oz. beef suet, 2 oz. neat's-foot oil, 2 oz. white wax, and 2 oz. pulverised gum arabic; add 1 gill of turpentine, and sufficient bone-black to give the whole a good colour; stir until thoroughly mixed, remove from the fire, continue to stir until cold, then roll into balls. To apply, warm the ball, rub it on the leather, and polish with a woollen cloth.
English ball blacking for harness is composed of 1 oz. lard, 1 oz. beeswax, 8 oz. ivory black, 8 oz. sugar, 4 oz. linseed-oil, and 2 or 3 oz. water.
Another kind is made of 2 oz. hogs' lard, 8 oz. best neat's-foot oil, 2 oz. beeswax, 10 oz. ivory black, and 8 oz. water. Heat the whole to a boil, remove from the fire, stir until sufficiently cool, and form into balls about 2 in. in diameter.
A third description is made of 2 oz. each ivory black, copperas, and neat's-foot oil, 4 oz. brown sugar, 4 oz. soft water, and 1 oz. gum tragacanth; boil until the water has evaporated, stir until cold, then roll into balls or mould into cakes.
A fourth is made of ½ lb. beeswax, 4 oz. ivory black, 2 oz. Prussian blue, 2 oz. spirits of turpentine, and 1 oz. copal varnish; melt the wax, stir in the other ingredients, and, when cool, roll into balls.
Still another famous harness and saddlery blacking is made of ¼ oz. isinglass, ¼ oz. indigo, 4 oz. logwood, 2 oz. soft soap, 4 oz. glue, and 1 pint vinegar; the whole is warmed, mixed, strained, allowed to cool, and is then ready for use.
Mix 1 oz. indigo, 1 lb. extract of logwood, 1 oz. softened glue, and 8 oz. crown soap (common soft soap can be used if the other cannot be had)in 2 qt. vinegar; place the mass over a slow fire, and stir until thoroughly mixed. Apply with a soft brush, and use a harder one for polishing.
Restoring Leather - covered Mountings. - Melt 3 parts white wax, then add 1 of gum copal, dissolved in linseed-oil, and 1 of ivory black; allow the mass to boil for 5 minutes, remove it from the fire, stir until cold, and roll up into balls.
Another: to 1½ lb. lamp black add 1 gal. pure neat's-foot oil, and 1 qt. vinegar black; allow it to stand 24 hours, and it will be ready for use.
Crown Soap Black. - Dissolve, over a slow fire, 1 lb. beeswax, 1 lb. crown soap, 3 oz. indigo, 4 oz. ivory black, and ½ pint oil of turpentine; as soon as dissolved, remove from the fire, and stir until cold.
Take 6 oz. turpentine, 3 oz. beeswax, 1½ oz. ivory black, ½ oz. indigo blue, ½ oz. ink. Cut the beeswax fine, pour the turpentine on it,let it stand covered 5 or 6 hours, and mix well together; to be kept covered.
Digest 12 parts shellac, 5 white turpentine, 2 gum sandarach, 1 lampblack, with 4 of spirits of turpentine, and 96 of alcohol.
For Brown Harness. - The following two recipes have been used by the writer for a long period and will be found economical and satisfactory. Take 3 lb. of beeswax, 1 lb. of lard, ¼ lb. of neat's-foot oil, 1 lb. of turpentine, and sufficient dragon's-blood to colour to the shade desired. Melt the wax and the lard together, add the oil, and stir well; allow to cool, then mix in the turpentine. Before the mixture cools too much add the colouring matter, stirring well in. Apply the polish to the leather, brush well, and finish with a linen rag.
To make a cream for brown leather, procure 2 lb. of best beeswax, ¼ lb. of pearl ash, 1 lb. of best yellow soap, 6 lb. of water, 4 lb. of turpentine, and ¼ lb. of methylated spirit. Put the pearl ash into the water and place over a fire to boil, and into this scrape the wax and soap; let the mixture again boil till thoroughly amalgamated, stir well until homogeneous. Allow to cool down somewhat, then add the turpentine, and lastly the spirit; mix all well together and thin with water if necessary. Rub the cream on the leather, dry polish with a brush, and finish with rag. Both the above are good nourishing applications, as well as good polishers.
For Russet Leather. - Mix together 1 part palm oil and 3 parts common soap, and heat up to 100° F.;then add 4 parts oleic acid, and, 1¾ of tanning solution, containing at least 1/16 of tannic acid (all parts by weight), and stir until cold. This is recommended as a valuable grease for russet leather, and as a preventative of gumming.
Cordova Wax. - Mix together 1½ pint red acid (chromic), 1 pint beer, 1 gill thick glue, 2 oz. ivory black, and 1 dr. indigo; boil for ½ hour and apply with a sponge.
Liquid blacking is usually filled into bottles closed by corks. Paste blacking is now more often put up in flat tins, though there is still a large demand for the commoner qualities wrapped in waterproof paper. The latter is generally prepared by steeping the paper first in boiled linseed-oil, pressing, then hanging up to dry for 18 hours to a week. The following is an improved way of making a waterproof paper of superior quality, thinner, but equally strong, and capable of drying in less than a minute. The paper is steeped in a melted or fluid composition, consisting of paraffin wax, or hard tallow, in combination with crude or other turpentine, in the proportions of two to one. It is then immediately pressed, and the surplus composition is removed by passing it between rollers heated by steam. By using paper in endless sheets, the whole process might be made continuous, the paper being finished for use or storing by the time it leaves the rollers.
It is obvious that the manufacture of blacking requires neither skill nor capital. It may be conducted on almost any scale according to the demand.