candles, dips defined in 1909 yearcandles, dips - Candles, Dips;
candles, dips - These candles are made by stringing a certain number of wicks upon a rod, and dipping them in melted tallow repeatedly. The process is very simple; the clarified and remelted tallow is poured into a tightly-joined walnut or cherry trough, 3 ft. long by 2 ft. wide, and 10 to 12 in. wide at the top, gradually diminishing to 3 or 4 in. at the bottom. A handle is fixed on each end for its easy removal, and when not in use it is closed with a cover. The operator commences by stringing 16 to 18 wicks at equal intervals on a thin wooden rod, about 2½ ft. long, and sharpened at the ends. He then takes 10 or 12 such rods and dips the wicks rapidly into the fluid tallow in a vertical direction. The tallow should be very liquid, in order that the wicks be soaked as uniformly as possible, after which the several rods are rested on the ledges of the trough, when, if any of the wicks be matted together, they are separated, and the rods so placed on a frame, having several cross-pieces, that the uncongealed tallow from the wicks may drop down, and while this is going on, which continues till the tallow is cooled and solidified, the operator is engaged in preparing another batch of rods. The fat in the trough, meanwhile, is so far cooled that in immersing the first dip again a thicker layer will adhere to the wicks. It is considered that when the tallow solidifies at the sides of the vessel, the temperature is the most convenient for the object in view. It is sometimes necessary to stir the ingredients to produce a uniform admixture, and in such cases much care should be taken so that no settlings be mingled with the mass, whilst by the addition of hot tallow any desired temperature may be obtained. The tallow on the wicks after each dipping becomes so gradually hardened, that at the third or fourth immersion new layers necessarily solidify; as a natural consequence of the method of dipping, the lower ends of the wicks become thicker than the upper, to remedy which the lower ends are again put into the melted fat for a few minutes, when the heat, as a matter of course, diminishes their dimensions. The process of dipping is continued until the candles acquire the requisite thickness. The conical spire at the upper end is formed by immersing deeper at the last dip, and if, eventually, the candles are too thick at the lower end, they are held over a slightly-heated folded copper sheet, so that the fat may melt, but not be wasted.
MouldsFor moulding, common metal moulds, a mixture of tin and lead, are used. They are slightly tapering tubes, varying in length and dimensions according to the size of the candle to be manufactured, and, when required, are arranged in regularly-perforated wooden frames or stands, with the smaller end downwards, forming the upper or pointed part of the candle. At this smaller end, the wick, previously saturated in melted fat, is inserted, filling the aperture, and, passing up the centre, is fastened perpendicularly at the upper end of the tube, to which is attached a movable cover. The melted fat is then poured in, generally with a small can, but a tinned iron siphon is better. It is requisite that the tallow should completely fill the mould, that it should remain uncracked on cooling, and should be easily removable from the moulds. This can, however, only be obtained when the fat at the sides cools more quickly than that in the interior, and when the whole candle is rapidly cooled. A cool season is, for this reason, far better; but a certain condition of the tallow, namely, that which it possesses at a temperature very near its melting point, is absolutely necessary. Candle-makers recognize the proper consistence of the tallow for moulding by the appearance of a scum upon the surface, which forms in hot weather between 111° and 119°F., in mild weather at 108° F., and in cold about 104° F. The tallow is usually melted by itself, sometimes, however, over a solution of alum. The candles are most easily removed from the mould the day after casting, to be cut and trimmed at the base. Moulding by hand is a very tedious operation, and only practised in the smaller factories; in more extensive establishments, where economy of time and labour is a consideration, machinery is employed.
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