stains removing - Stains removing; stains removing - The following general remarks on the removal of stains appeared anonymously in the 'English Mechanic.' To proceed with any degree of certainty in endeavours to remove stains, they must be divided into three classes, as each variety will require a peculiar treatment. The first class comprehends those stains which do not in any way affect the nature of the material or colour, but simply alter its appearance, and which can be removed by the application of one agent alone. These may be designated Simple Stains. The second divison includes such as are produced by two or more substances conjointly, and which consequently require the employment of several cleaning agents. These are known as Mixed Stains. In the third category may be placed such stains as are produced by bodies which alter or destroy the colour.
In the first class are water, oily matters, vegetable juices, blood, and iron or ink stains. If water be allowed to fall on some kinds of silks, satins, or woollen fabrics, it dissolves away part of the dressing, and the consequence is that a dull spot appears on the glossy ground. To remove a stain of this nature, it is necessary to steam the spotted material until it is all equally moistened. It may then be hot-pressed, or, if small, ironed with a hot, but perfectly clean iron.
Grease spots may generally be removed from the most delicate material by the employment of benzine or oil of turpentine, care being taken that sufficient be employed to remove all line of demarcation. Ox-gall is particularly useful in extracting grease stains from woollen goods. If the stain be very thickly crusted and old, it may be sometimes advantageous to soften the grease (previous to the application of benzine) by means of a warm iron laid on a piece of thick blotting-paper which has been placed over the spot.
Tar and pitch produce stains easily removed by successive applications of spirits of turpentine, coal-tar naphtha, and benzine. If they are very old and hard, it is as well to soften them by lightly rubbing with a pledget of wool dipped in good olive-oil. The softened mass will then easily yield to the action of the other solvents.
Resins, varnishes, and sealing-wax may be removed by warming and applying strong methylated spirits. Care must always be taken that, in rubbing the material to remove the stains, the friction should always be applied the way of the stuff, and not indifferently backwards and forwards.
Most fruits yield juices which, owing to the acid they contain, permanently injure the tone of the dye; but the greater part may be removed without leaving a stain, if the spot be rinsed in cold water in which a few drops of liquor ammonia have been placed before the spot has dried. Wine also leaves an ugly stain on white materials; from these it may be removed by rinsing with cold water, applying locally a weak solution of chloride of lime, and again rinsing in an abundance of water. The dressing must again be imparted by steaming, starching, and hot-pressing.
Fresh ink and the soluble salts of iron - such as are used by photographers in their developing solutions, etc. - produce stains, which, if allowed to dry, and especially if afterwards the material has been washed, are difficult to extract without injury to the ground. When fresh, such stains yield rapidly to a treatment with moistened cream of tartar, aided by a little friction, if the material or colour is delicate. If the ground be white, oxalic acid, employed in the form of concentrated aqueous solution, will effectually remove fresh iron stains. Acids produce red stains, on blacks, blues, and violets, made from the vegetable colours (except indigo). If the acid has not been strong enough to destroy the material, and the stains are fresh, the colour may generally be restored by repeated soakings in dilute liquor ammonia, applied as locally as possible. Photographers frequently stain their clothes and cloths with nitrate of silver. The immediate and repeated application of a very weak solution of cyanide of potassium (accompanied by thorough rinsings in clean water) will generally remove these without injury to the colours.
Mixed stains are generally produced by spilling sauces, gravy, or, by inadvertently rubbing against wet paint, cart-grease, etc. Sauce usually contains oily or greasy matter, blood and vinegar, or some fruit-juice; hence the first step consists in removing the grease by means of ox-gall or benzine, then the acid of the vinegar or juice is neutralised by means of weak ammonia, when a final rinse in cold water will extract the blood, etc.
Most fruit-juices, wines, jam, etc., leave stains that will require a preliminary washing with water, to remove sugary matter, treatment with very dilute ammonia to neutralise the acid, and exposure while damp to the fumes of burning sulphur. But the action of this agent must be localised as much as possible to the spot where I the stain occurs, and it must be used j with the greatest circumspection, for it bleaches nearly all vegetable colours, though many of them regain their force on exposure to air.
Paint stains may be treated with oil of turpentine to remove the oil, with oxygenated water to oxidise the lead, and finally, with dilute acetic acid. If the paint contains oxide of iron, oxalic acid will have to be used, while the copper colours must be treated with liquor ammonia.
Old ink stains require treating first with protochloride of tin, to deoxidise the iron, and then with dilute oxalic acid. If the material be white, it may be touched with a dilute solution of chloride of lime on the part stained, and then thoroughly washed.
Lubricants generally contain, besides grease, oxide of iron worn off the machinery, etc., hence the grease must first be extracted by means of benzine, ox-gall, ammonia, etc., and then the spot treated with oxalic acid or chloride of lime water, or even lemon-juice, if the material is very delicate. Rinsing must always follow the application of these agents.
Mercurial ointment produces very persistent stains. These may be extracted by washing the spot with a hot solution of soda (1 soda to 50 water), and when the grease is removed, by rubbing over with a rather strong solution (clear) of chloride of lime. Benzine must be substituted for the soda solution if the article is coloured or delicate.
Care must be taken in all these cases to operate on both sides of the stuff, or the removal will only be superficial, and the spot will reappear in time. It will be seldom found, in the case of mixed stains, that the original tone of the colour is not more or less altered or injured. Consequently, attempts must be made to re-establish the colours. If the colours be aniline, the application of Judson's dyes, in a dilute form, will generally be efficacious, except on cottons, which will require a previous mordanting on the spot. This may be effected by means of a strong decoction (clear) of myrobalams.
If the colours have been changed by vegetable acids, or dilute mineral acids, the colour may generally be restored by means of dilute ammonia. If that does not suffice, the spot must be mordanted with a brush, and the dye painted in. While drying, the spot must be continuously rubbed with a pledget of wool dipped in ether, so as to spread the matter equally, and leave no sharp line of demarcation. A weak solution of sulphate of indigo will be found useful for restoring blues; the strength must naturally be proportioned to the depth of tone required. Most scarlets, crimson, etc., can be restored by the application of a solution of bichloride of tin, followed, if necessary, by a local application of tincture of cochineal. If crimson be required, a small portion of alum must be added; if scarlet, cream of tartar along with the cochineal.
The stains produced by fresh urine, and by perspiration, require to be treated first with weak ammonia, and then with the bichloride of tin solution (long known as eau ecarlate), which will, if the colour be not altogether destroyed, restore it. Painting in, after the application of the appropriate mordant, is the only remedy, if the colour has suffered permanently.
Aniline Colours stains removing
Goods stained with aniline colours may be rendered clean by the use of zinc grey: the metallic zinc contained in this powder reduces the colours, forming soluble colourless products. Triturate 100 gr. zinc grey with 50 gr. mucilage, 20° B., until the mixture is homogeneous; incorporate with this 20 gr. of a solution of hyposulphite of soda, 20° B., apply this mixture directly to the goods; let it dry and vaporise. After this operation it is best to wash the goods with water slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid.
"White cottons and linens, tartaric acid in solution; the older the stain the more concentrated the solution should be. Coloured cottons and woollens and silks, a weak solution of tartaric acid, if the colour allows of its use.
Stains of red aniline may be removed by moistening the spot with strong alcohol acidulated with nitric acid. Unless the stain is produced by eosine it disappears without difficulty. Paper is hardly affected by the process; still it is always advisable to make a blank experiment first.
Fruit and Wine stains removing
White cotton or linen, fumes of burning sulphur, warm chlorine water. Coloured cottons or woollens, wash with tepid soapsuds or ammonia. Silks the same, with very gentle rubbing.
First rub the spot on each side with hard soap, and then lay on a thick mixture of starch and cold water. Rub this mixture of starch well into the spot, and afterwards expose it to the sun and air. If the stain has not disappeared at the end of 3 or 4 days, repeat the process.
Stains of wine may be quickly and easily removed from linen, by dipping the parts which are stained I into boiling milk. The milk to be kept boiling until the stain disappears.
Grease and Oil stains removing
For white linen or cotton goods, use soap or weak lye. For coloured calicoes, warm soapsuds. For woollens, soapsuds or ammonia. For silks, benzine, ether, ammonia, magnesia, chalk, yolk of egg, with water.
Dissolve 1 oz. pearlash in 1 pint water, and to this solution add a lemon cut into thin slices Mix well, and keep the mixture in a warm state for 2 days, then strain and bottle the clear liquid for use. A small quantity of this mixture poured on stains, occasioned by either grease, oil, or pitch, will speedily remove them. Afterwards wash in clear water.
Carbonate of magnesia - magnesia that has been previously calcined is best - is dried in an oven and mixed with sufficient benzine to form a soft friable mass. In this state it is put into a wide-mouthed glass bottle, well-stoppered and kept for use. It is spread pretty thickly over the stains, and rubbed well to and fro with the tip of the finger. The small rolls of earthy matter so formed are brushed off, and more magnesia is laid on and left until the benzine has evaporated entirely. Materials that will bear washing are then cleaned with water; on silks, alcohol or benzine should be used instead. The process may be applied to textile fabrics of every description, except those containing very much wool, to which the magnesia adheres very tenaciously. It may also be used for stains, old or new, on all sorts of fancy woods, ivory, parchment, etc., without risk of injury. Ordinary writing ink is not affected by it, but letterpress quickly dissolves, owing to the absorption of the fatty matter in the ink.
A method of cleansing greasy woollen or cotton rags and waste. The rags are thrown into a closed revolving drum, with a quantity of perfectly dry and finely-powdered plaster-of-Paris; when the plaster has absorbed all the grease, the whole is transferred to another revolving drum, pierced with holes, by which means the greater portion of the greasy plaster is got rid of. The operation is finished by beating the rags on a kind of wooden sieve.
In the removal of grease from clothing, with benzol or turpentine, people generally make the mistake of wetting the cloth with the turpentine and then rubbing it with a sponge or piece of cloth. In this way the fat is dissolved, but is spread over a greater space and is not removed; the benzol or turpentine evaporates, and the fat covers a greater surface than before. The way is to place soft blotting-paper beneath and on top, of the grease spot, which is to be first thoroughly saturated with the benzol, and then well pressed. The fat is then dissolved and absorbed by the paper, and entirely removed from the clothing.
Castile soap in shavings, 4 oz.; carbonate of soda, 2 oz.; borax, 1 oz.; aqua ammonia, 7 oz.; alcohol, 3 oz.; sulphuric ether, 2 oz. Soft water enough to make 1 gal. Boil the soap in the water until it is dissolved, and then add the other ingredients. Although it is not apparent what good 2 oz. of ether can do in a gallon of liquid, the mixture is said to be very efficient.
Make a weak solution of ammonia by mixing the ordinary "liquor ammonise" of the druggist with its own volume of cold water, and rub it well into the greasy parts, rinsing the cloth in cold water from time to time until the grease is removed. The ammonia forms a soap with the fatty acids of the grease, which is soluble in water.
On paper. - Press powdered fullers' earth lightly upon the greasy spot, and allow it to soak out the grease.
Hannett says the spots may be removed by washing the part with ether, chloroform, or benzine, and placing between white blotting-paper, then passing a hot iron over.
A more expeditions, and thought by some, the best way, is to scrape fine pipeclay, magnesia, or French chalk on both sides of the stain, and apply a hot iron above, taking great care that it is not too hot.
After gently warming the paper, take out all the grease you can with blotting-paper, and a hot iron, then dip a brush into essential oil of turpentine, heated almost to ebullition, and draw it gently over both sides of the paper, which must be kept warm. Repeat the operation until all is removed, or as often as the thickness of the paper may render necessary. When all the grease is removed, to restore the paper to its former whiteness, dip another brush in ether, chloroform, or benzine, and apply over the stain, especially the edges of it. This will not affect printers' or common writing ink.
Lay on a coat of indiarubber solution over the spot, and leave it to dry. Afterwards remove with a piece of ordinary indiarubber. Any operation with ether, chloroform, or benzine, should never be conducted by candlelight, as their vapour is apt to kindle even at several feet from the liquid. No. (10) will remove grease from coloured calf, even if the spot be on the under side of the leather, it may thus be clearly drawn right through.
Apply a solution of pear lash (in the proportion of 1 oz. pearlash to 1 pint water) to oil-stained drawing-paper.
Calico. - Immerse the stained calico in strong soda and water, and then well wash in clean water. The soda would saponify the oil, and so render it soluble in water. If you want to carry on the cleaning process on a large scale, the best way is to boil the goods in lime water or a solution of any alkali, and then well wash them.
To get grease out of woollen goods, the best way to proceed is to immerse them in a cold bath, consisting of stale urine and water, for about 20 minutes. During this time the carbonate of ammonia evolved in the decomposition of the urea combines with the grease, forming a substance which is readily removed by washing.
Work your linen in a lye of soda; say 1 gill commercial caustic soda to every 2 gal. water; boil, and steep in this 1 hour; wash and steep 2 hours in a solution of bleaching liquor; 1 gill bleaching liquor, at 28° Tw., to every gallon of water; wash from this, and steep 1 hour in a weak sour, say 1 gill spirits of salts to 1 gal. liquor; now wash repeatedly in water, when the stains will disappear, and the linen become clean and white.
Felt Hats. - Wash in a hot solution of soda or sesquicarbonate of ammonia.
Floors. - Take ¼ lb. fullers' earth and ¼ lb. pearlash, and boil together in 1 qt. water, and, while hot, spread it on the greased surface, allowing it to remain 14 or 15 hours; after which it may be scoured off with sand and water.
Procure some good light benzoline, scrub the stained portion with a hard brush dipped in this, then wipe with a dry flannel. Make a strong solution of common washing soda in hot water, place a little unslaked lime, broken into coarse powder, over the stains, and pour on sufficient solution of soda to wet the lime thoroughly. Leave this mixture on for a short time, then scrub hard with plenty of clean hot water, and wipe dry with clean flannel.
Carpet. - Upon the grease stain lay a little damp fullers' earth, and, after standing for some time, rub it gently into the carpet, and then wash off by using a little carbonate of ammonia, and the colour will be restored.
Ink and Ironmould stains removing
Equal parts of cream of tartar and citric acid, powdered fine, and mixed together. This forms the salts of lemon as sold by druggists. Directions for using: Procure a hot dinner-plate, lay the part stained in the plate, and moisten with hot water; next rub in the above powder with the bowl of a spoon until stains disappear; then rinse in clean water and dry.
Place the stained part flat in a plate or dish, and sprinkle crystals of oxalic acid upon it, adding a little water; the stains will soon disappear, when the linen should be well wrung out in two or three changes of clean water.
Dip the part in boiling water, and rub it with crystals of oxalic acid; then soak in a weak solution of chloride of lime - say 1 oz. to the quart of water. Under any circumstances, as soon as the stain is removed, the linen should be thoroughly rinsed in several waters.
The "Journal de Pharmacie d'Anvers" recommends pyrophosphate of soda for the removal of ink stains. This salt does not injure vegetable fibre, and yields colourless compounds with the ferric oxide of the ink. It is best to first apply tallow to the ink spot, then wash in a solution of pyrophosphate until both tallow and ink have disappeared.
Thick blotting-paper is soaked in a concentrated solution of oxalic acid and dried. Laid immediately on a blot, it takes it out without leaving a trace behind.
Muriate of tin, 2 parts; water, 4 parts. To be applied with a soft brush, after which the paper must be passed through cold water.
Hydrochloric acid and hot water, in the proportion of 8 of hot water to 1 of acid; if not strong enough, add more acid; when clear of stain, wash well and boil, to remove all traces of acid.
A weak solution of chloride of zinc.
On Furniture. - Put a few drops of spirits of nitre (nitric acid) in a tea-spoonful of water, touch the spot with a feather dipped in the mixture, and, on the ink disappearing, rub immediately with a rag wetted in cold water, or it will leave a white mark. It should then be polished with furniture paste.
Undiluted spirits of salts (hydrochloric acid) may be used in the same manner, with care.
Printers' Ink. - Put the stained parts of the fabric into a quantity of benzine, then use a fine, rather stiff brush, with fresh benzine. Dry and rub bright with warm water and curd soap. The benzine will not injure the fabric or dye.
Marking Ink. - Dissolve 1 oz. cyanide of potassium in 4 oz. water; this mixture is very poisonous, and should, therefore, be used with great caution. Moisten the stained part of the garment with this solution by dipping it into it, or by means of a small brush; and in a few hours the stain will be obliterated.
To a solution of strong cyanide of potassium add a few grains of iodine. Repeated applications will remove any stain caused by nitrate of silver.
Grimm proposes the following method: Chloride of copper is first applied to the tissue; it is next washed with hyposulphite of soda solution, and afterwards with water. It is said that this may be employed on coloured woven cotton tissues. For white cottons and linens, dilute solutions of permanganate of potash and hydro chloric acid, followed by the hypo sulphite of soda and clear water, are preferable. For cleaning the hands, iodine dissolved either with iodide of potassium, or in alcohol, is used, followed by aqua ammonia.
Indian Ink. - To remove a blot, dip a camel-hair brush in water, and rub over the blot, letting the water remain on a few seconds; then make as dry as you can with blotting-paper, then rub carefully with indiarubber. Repeat the operation if notall removed. For lines, circles, etc., dip the ink-leg of your instruments in water, open the pen rather wider than the line, and trace over, using blotting-paper and indiarubber, as for a blot. Applicable to drawing-paper, tracing-paper, and tracing-linen. If the surface is a little rough after, polish with your nail.
Iodine stains removing
Stains of iodine are removed by rectified spirit.
Lime, Lye and Alkalies stains removing
White cottons and linens, wash with cold water. Coloured goods and silks, a weak solution of citric acid applied with the tip of the finger to the spot previously moistened with water.
Mildew stains removing
Well mix together a spoonful of table salt, 2 of soft soap, 2 of powdered starch, and the juice of a lemon. Lay this mixture on both sides of the stain with a painter's brush, and then lay the article on the grass, day and night, until the stain disappears.
Get a piece of flannel, dip it into whisky, and well rub the place marked; then iron on the wrong side, taking care to put a piece of damp cotton cloth between the iron and silk, and iron on the cotton cloth, which will prevent the silk assuming a shiny, glazed appearance.
Wash clean, and take every particle of soap off, then put the linen into a galvanised bath or tub full of clean cold water, procure a little chloride of lime, and tie it up in a muslin bag or piece of muslin, dissolve the lime in lukewarm water by squeezing the bag, then pour the water among the clothes. Stir and leave them for 24 hours, but do not put too much lime, or you will rot the clothes; then well rinse in clean cold water.
Milk and, Coffee stains removing
These stains are very difficult to remove, especially from light-coloured and finely-finished goods. From woollen and mixed fabrics, they are taken out by moistening them with a mixture of 1 part glycerine, 9 water, and ½ part aqua ammonia. This mixture is applied to the goods by means of a brush, and allowed to remain for 12 hours (occasionally renewing the moistening). After this time, the stained pieces are pressed between cloth and then rubbed with a clean rag. Drying, and, if possible, a little steaming, are generally sufficient to thoroughly remove the stains. Stains on silk garments which are dyed with delicate colours, or finely finished, are more difficult to remove. In this case 5 parts glycerine are mixed with 5 parts water, and ¼ part of ammonia added. Before using this mixture, it should be tried on some part of the garments where it cannot be noticed, in order to see if the mixture will change colour. If such is the case no ammonia should be added. If, on the contrary, no change takes place, or if, after drying, the original colour is restored, the above mixture is applied with a soft brush, allowing it to remain on the stains for 6 or 8 hours, and is then rubbed with a clean cloth. The remaining dry substance is then carefully taken off by means of a knife. The injured places are now brushed over with clean water, pressed between cloths, and dried. If the stain is not then removed, a rubbing with dried bread will easily take it off. To restore the finish, a thin solution of gum arabic, or in many cases beer is preferred, is brushed on, then dried and carefully ironed. By careful manipulation these stains will be successfully removed.
Paint, Varnish and Resin stains removing
For white or coloured cotton and woollen goods, oil of turpentine or benzine, followed by soapsuds. For silk, benzine, ether, soap; hard rubbing is to be avoided. For all kinds of fabrics chloroform is best, but must be carefully used.
Stains of paint or varnish, after being softened with olive-oil or fresh butter, may generally be removed by the same means as ordinary grease spots.
Saturate the spots with a solution of equal parts turpentine and spirits of ammonia; wash out with strong soapsuds.
Stearin, Sperm Candles stains removing
For all kinds use 95 per cent, alcohol.
Tannin, Walnut Shells stains removing
White cottons and linens, Javelle water (liquor sodae chlorinatse), warm chlorine water, concentrated solution of tartaric acid. Coloured goods or silks, chlorine water, diluted according to the tissue and colour, each application to be followed by washing with water.
Tar, Axle Grease stains removing
White cottons and linens, soap, oil of turpentine, and water, each applied in turns. Coloured cottons and woollens, first, smear with lard, rub with soap and water, and let, it stand for a short time; then wash with oil of turpentine and water, alternately. Silk the same, using benzine instead of turpentine, and dropping the water from a certain height on the under side of satin. Avoid rubbing.