morphine defined in 1909 year

morphine - Morphine;
morphine - Morphine is the most important alkaloid obtained from opium, itself a product of several species of poppy (Papaver). Cooley gives the following 4 methods of preparing morphine:

(1) Turkey opium (cut into thin slices), 1 lb., is macerated for 24 hours in 1 qt. water, and the liquid portion is decanted; the residuum is macerated for 12 hours' with a second quart of water, and the process is repeated with a third quart of water, after which the insoluble portion is subjected to strong pressure; the mixed liquids are evaporated by water or steam heat to a pint, and filtered through calico; to the filtrate is added a solution formed of 6 dr. calcium chloride, dissolved in 4 fl. oz. distilled water, and the liquid is further evaporated until it is so far concentrated that nearly the whole of it becomes solid on cooling; this is enveloped in a couple of folds of strong calico, and subjected to powerful pressure, the dark liquid which exudes being preserved for subsequent use; the squeezed cake is next treated with about ½ pint of boiling water and the undissolved portion is washed on a paper filter; the filtered solution is again evaporated, and the solid portion thus obtained submitted to pressure as before; if the product is not quite white, this process is repeated a third time; the squeezed cake is now dissolved in 6 fl. oz. of boiling water, and the solution filtered through animal charcoal (if necessary); to the clear solution is added ammonia in slight excess; the crystalline precipitate, which forms as the liquid cools, is collected on a paper filter, washed with cold distilled water, and, lastly, the filter is transferred to a porous brick, in order that the morphine which it contains may become dry. (From the liquids reserved from the expressions, more morphine may be obtained by dilution with water, precipitation with ammonia, re-solution in boiling water, and treatment with a little animal charcoal, etc., as before.)

(2) Hydrochlorate of morphine, 1 oz., is dissolved in 1 pint distilled water, and 5 fl. dr. (or q. s.) ammonia previously diluted with 1 fl. oz. Water is added, with agitation; the precipitate is well washed in distilled water, and dried by a gentle heat. By a similar process, morphine may be obtained from its other salts.

(3) A cold aqueous infusion of opium is precipitated with carbonate of sodium in excess; the precipitate is washed, first with cold water, and then with cold alcohol of 0.85 sq. gr.; the residue is dissolved in weak acetic acid;the solution is filtered through animal charcoal, and precipitated with ammonia; the precipitate is again washed with cold water, dissolved in alcohol, and crystallised. A good process where spirit is cheap. (Merck.)

(4) Opium, 4 parts, is made into a strong infusion with water, q. s.; 1 part lime, reduced to a state of milk with water, is then added; the mixture is next heated to boiling, at once filtered through linen, and treated, whilst still hot, with chloride of ammonium, in fine powder, in slight excess (about 1 oz. to each lb. Of opium); the morphine is deposited as the liquid cools, and may be purified by a second solution in lime and precipitation by chloride of ammonium. This process is remarkably simple, and in many points is preferable to any other, either on the small or large scale. (Mohr.)

(5) Pure. - The opium is digested in tepid water, and strongly expressed several times. The solution is evaporated down with powdered carbonate of lime. When about the consistence of a syrup, water is added, and the precipitated meconate of lime is filtered off. The liquid is again concentrated at a gentle, heat. When concentrated and quite cold, a solution of chloride of calcium and a little hydrochloric acid are added, and the mixture is left to stand for 15 days. During this time crystals of hydrochlorates of morphine and codeine are deposited. In order to separate these, the crystals are dissolved in water, and treated with dilute ammonia, which precipitates the morphine, leaving the codeine in solution. The morphine is purified by repeated crystallisations in alcohol. When prepared in this way, morphine is often contaminated with a little narcotine, which may be removed by treating with ether, in which morphine is quite insoluble.

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