strychnine



strychnine defined in 1909 year

strychnine - Strychnine;
strychnine - Strychnine may be obtained from nux vomica (Strychnosnux vomica) and from the Ignatius bean (. Ignatii) by the following methods:

(1) Dissolve hydrochlorate or sulphate of strychnine in distilled water, and throw down the alkaloid with ammonia, carefully avoiding excess; re-dissolve the precipitate in hot rectified spirit, and collect the crystals which form as the liquid cools.

(2) Nux vomica (in powder), 1 lb., is digested for 24 hrs. in ½ gal. Of water acidulated with 2 fl. dr. of sulphuric acid, after which it is boiled for| hour, and the decoction decanted; the residue is boiled a second and a third time with a fresh ½ gal. of water acidulated with 1 fl. dr. of the acid, and the undissolved matter is finally submitted to strong expression; the decoctions are next filtered and concentrated to the consistence of a syrup, which is boiled with 3 pints rectified spirit for about 20 minutes, hydrate of calcium (1 oz., or q. s.) being added in successive portions during the ebullition, until the solution becomes distinctly alkaline; the liquid is then filtered, the spirit distilled off, and the residue dissolved in diluted sulphuric acid, q. s.; ammonia, in slight excess is added to the filtered solution, and the precipitate which falls is collected upon a paper filter, and dried; it is next re-dissolved in a minimum of boiling rectified spirit, and digested with ½ oz. of animal charcoal for 20 minutes; the filtered liquid, as it cools deposits strychnine in crystals.

(3) Nux vomica, 1 lb.; acetate of lead, 180 gr.; solution of ammonia, q. s. Subject the nux vomica for 2 hours to steam in any convenient vessel; chop or slice it; dry it in a water-bath or hot-air chamber, and immediately grind it in a coffee-mill. Digest the powder at a gentle heat for 12 hours with 2 pints of the spirit and 1 pint of the water, strain through linen, express strongly, and repeat the process twice. Distil off the spirit from the mixed fluid, evaporate the watery residue to about 16 oz., and filter when cold. Add now the acetate of lead, previously dissolved in distilled water, so long as it contains any precipitate; filter; wash the precipitate with 10 oz. of cold water, adding the washings to the filtrate; evaporate the clear fluid to 8 oz., and, when it has cooled, add the ammonia in slight excess, stirring thoroughly. Let the mixture stand at the ordinary temperature for 12 hours; collect the precipitate on a filter, wash it once with a few oz. of cold distilled water, dry it in a water-bath or hot-air chamber, and boil it with successive portions of rectified spirit, till the fluid scarcely tastes bitter. Distil off most of the spirit, evaporate the residue to the bulk of about ½ oz., and set it aside to cool. Cautiously pour off the yellowish mother-liquor (which contains the brucine of the seeds) from the white crust of strychnine which adheres to the vessel. Throw_ the crust on a paper filter, wash it with a mixture of 2 parts of rectified spirit and 1 part of water, till the washings cease to become red on the addition of nitric acid; finally dissolve by boiling it with 1 oz. of rectified spirit, and set it aside to crystallise. More crystals may be obtained by evaporating the mother-liquor.

near strychnine in Knolik


structureless lamellahome
letter "S"
start from "ST"
study of trees

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