alloys, iron



alloys, iron defined in 1909 year

alloys, iron - Alloys, Iron;
alloys, iron - All substances added to iron, according to Kirk, make it more fusible. Lead added in small quantity makes iron soft and tough, but in excess renders it "extreme cold-short." Copper induces "extreme red-short "-ness, and over 1 per cent, will make the iron "cold-short," but small quantities increase the strength of iron when cold. Arsenic imparts a silvery whiteness, but renders the iron brittle. Tin also whitens iron, and in about equal proportions makes it as hard as steel, but the alloy cannot be forged. The chromium alloy of iron is as hard as bort, but difficult to make. Tungsten steel, containing 6 to 8 per cent, of the former metal, is excessively hard and tough, but requires much care in manufacture. Silver renders iron hard, brittle, and very liable to corrosion. Gold produces toughness, and a yellow colour; this alloy is used for small iron castings. Carbon increases the fusibility; 1 to 2 per cent, makes hard cast iron, 5 to 6 foundry iron, less than 1 per cent, renders the iron very hard and brittle, and over 6 per cent, causes extreme brittleness. Sulphur causes iron to be both hard and brittle, when either hot or cold, and it makes molten iron ' 'short-lived "; fuel containing sulphur should not be used for melting iron in contact with the fuel. Phosphorus is very injurious to iron; ½ per cent, will cause iron to be very hard and brittle when cold, but it imparts a brilliant and white colour to iron more perfectly than any other metal. Silicon makes iron brittle and hard; it has a similar effect to phosphorus, but it is not so injurious. All cast iron contains more or less carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, and silicon, and, as these substances predominate, they form hard or soft, strong or brittle irons; and as all anthracite coal and coke contain more or less of these substances, anthracite or coke iron is less pure and more variable than charcoal iron, and, on account of the uncertain amount of these impurities contained in cast iron, it is very difficult to make an alloy of iron and other metals with any certainty as to the result: for this reason, alloyed iron is very little used.

Faraday and Stodart made a nickel-iron alloy by adding 3 per cent, of nickel to a good iron, and exposing in a crucible to a high temperature during several hours. The metals were melted; and on examining the button, the nickel was found combined with the iron. The alloy appeared to be as malleable and easily worked as pure iron; its colour was tolerably white when polished; the specific gravity was 7. 804. On melting horse-shoe nails with 10 per cent, of nickel, the metals were found perfectly combined but the alloy was less malleable, and easily broken under the hammer. Polished it had a yellow tinge; its specific gravity was 7.849. This alloy was affected very slightly by humidity, compared to what would have happened had the iron been pure. According to Berthier, the alloy, consisting of:Iron - 0.917, 12 at; Nickel - 0.083, 1 at.

which is obtained by reducing a mixture of the 2 oxides in a crucible lined with charcoal, is semi-ductile, very tenacious, and has a granular fracture, slightly lamellar.

Iron in all states (malleable, cast, and sheet) unites with gold in any proportion by fusion: 3 parts iron and 1 of gold enter into fusion together at a temperature inferior to that necessary for melting iron; equal parts of the 2 metals give, by fusion, a greyish mass, somewhat brittle, and attracted by the magnet; with 6 parts gold and 1 of iron, a white alloy is obtained, which is attracted by the -magnet, ductile while cold, and at a moderate heat becomes yellow, red, and blue; 9 of iron and 1 of gold form an alloy which resists the file, unless previously subjected to a red heat; with 28 of iron and 8 of gold, the alloy is as white as pure silver, and more yielding under the fire and hammer than ductile iron. According to Hatchett, the alloy formed with 11 parts gold and 1 of iron is very ductile, of great resisting power, and harder than gold. Without any preparation, it can readily be cut into blocks, laminated, or struck into medals. This alloy is of a pale yellowish-grey colour, approaching dirty white. Its specific gravity is 16.885.

Iron combines with tungsten by heating to the proper point, in a crucible, a mixture of 100 parts iron, 50 of the yellow oxide of tungsten, and a sufficient quantity of charcoal. After fusion and cooling, there is found a perfect button of a brownish-white colour, hard, rough to the touch, and of an even fracture. Hassenfratz obtained an alloy of the 2 metals, which forged easily enough, although slightly brittle; it was ductile, cracked in the tempering, and assumed in forging a partially fibrous partially granular texture. Karsten concludes from these experiments, that tungsten (in this respect resembling titanium) only increases the hardness of iron. The alloy, composed of: Iron 0.63, 6 at; Tungsten - 0.37, 1 at, is, according to Berthier, of a whiter grey than iron, shining, hard more brittle than ordinary cast-iron, and of lamellar structure.

The union of iron and antimony is readily effected by fusion, and it would seem that it may take place in all proportions. These metals have a great affinity for each other. Their alloys are much more fusible than iron, and are white, hard, and very brittle. Their specific gravity is less than the mean of that of the 2 metals. According to Thompson, this alloy may be obtained by fusing in a crucible 2 parts antimony sulphide and 1 of iron. This alloy was formerly called regulus martialis, used in medicine for the preparation called "Mars' saffron," or "aperient antimony." The magnetic character of iron is much more diminished by its alloy with antimony than by almost any other metal. The iron is also rendered harder, much more fusible, and brittle, like cast-iron. Antimony, in uniting with iron, becomes harder and less fusible. Karsten added to cast-iron, after liquefaction, 1 per cent, of antimony; notwithstanding its volatility, this metal exercised on iron a worse influence than even tin. The iron became very brittle at all temperatures.

Karsten found that by the addition of 15 per cent, of fine silver to iron during the refinery operation, the quality of the iron was sensibly deteriorated: it did not forge well, became scaly, the bars presented cracks at the edges, and otherwise resembled hot-short iron. Analyses showed that it contained 0.034 per cent, of silver. It would appear, therefore, that silver has the same influence as sulphur upon iron, although in a less marked degree.

Iron and arsenic may be combined by fusion in any proportion. When the amount of arsenic is large, the magnetic character of the iron disappears. The alloy of these metals is more or less white, hard, brittle, and fusible, according to the amount of arsenic. It is crystallisable, its fracture more dense, and the texture closer than that of iron; according to Achard, similar to that of steel. Cadet asserts that this alloy will receive a brilliant polish, and that articles of jewellery are made from it.

Iron has a great affinity for chromium, and the 2 metals form alloys in all proportions. These compounds are generally hard, brittle, crystalline, of a greyer white than iron, of considerable lustre, less fusible, much less magnetic, and very much less soluble in acids than iron; the characters are the more prominent in proportion to the amount of chromium.

The alloy, composed of: Iron 696.00, 0.83, 5 at.; Chromium 351.82, 0.17, 1 at; is nearly of a silver white, with a fibrous texture, not easily yielding to the file, and very brittle. Merimee, with the aid of a cutler, tried 2 different alloys prepared by Berthier, the one containing 0.010 chromium, the other 0.015. Both forged extremely well; the former indeed appeared more easy to forge than pure cast-steel. Blades were made out of them for a sword and razor, and both were found to be of excellent quality, their edges being hard and lasting. But the most remarkable characteristic was the readiness with which this alloy received a beautiful damascening when rubbed with sulphuric acid. This damascening presented an agreeable variety of veins of a very brilliant silver-white, much resembling that which is obtained from steel alloyed with silver. The white parts, according to Berthier, are probably pure chromium, upon which the strongest acids have scarcely any action. In the Chrome Steel Works of Brooklyn, the chrome-iron ore is ground fine, and reduced with powdered charcoal in crucibles. The resulting mass is carefully weighed, ground, mixed with Swedish or wrought-iron and melted in crucibles in charges of 75 lb. In 24 hours, the contents of 6 crucibles can be melted. The hardness of the resulting steel depends on the amount of chromium contained, which may vary from 0.25 to 2 per cent.

Copper, according to Karsten, may combine with any proportion of iron, augmenting its tenacity and hardness. Einmann, for this reason, thinks that it would make, with raw cast-iron, an excellent alloy for anchors, mortars, anvils, cylinders, etc. 200 parts grey cast-iron, and 10 of red copper in thin shavings, immersed in linseed-oil, and submitted, with the addition of charcoal, to a very hot forge fire during 25 minutes, yield, according to Hinmann, a homogeneous metallic button, composed of 104 iron, 6 copper. This alloy is very hard; its density is 7.467 His experiments show that 200 parts copper and 10 of grey cast-iron, treated in the same way, yield a homogeneous button very ductile when cold. With 16 of copper and 1 of raw cast-iron, he obtained a ductile alloy that was magnetic, and resisted the file better than pure copper; the surface and fracture were of a fine red colour. Finally, 8 of copper, and 1 to 4 of iron, give alloys which are harder than the preceding, but not perceptibly more brittle nor less coloured than copper. According to Lavoisier, iron containing copper possesses greater tenacity than any other, and becomes brittle only in the stages between a brown-red and deep-red heat: above or below this temperature it can readily be forged. Berthier affirms, in like manner, that iron containing copper possesses great tenacity when cold, but that it is brittle when hot, and can be forged only when above a reddish-white heat or below a cherry-red heat. It is probable, he says, that a large proportion of copper, 1 per cent, for example, would give the cast-iron additional tenacity, and make it better fitted to be employed in castings.

According to Dumas, tin enters into alloy with iron in all proportions. Heated to a high temperature, they melt; but at a moderate heat, separation takes place - a species of liquation. At first a quantity of pure tin, more or less considerable, is melted; then tin alloyed with iron; and there finally remains a less fusible alloy, consisting of tin and iron in other proportions, the iron predominating. Berthier states that a very small quantity of iron is sufficient to diminish the malleability of tin, blemish its white colour, and render it hard. The 2 metals enter into direct alloy when their oxides are heated with either charcoal or black flux. The alloy, composed of: Tin 0.351, 1 at.; Iron 0.649, 4 at; is of a clear iron-grey colour, crystalline, and sufficiently brittle to be reduced with ease to an impalpable powder. The alloy, composed of: Tin 0.50; Iron 0.50; is of a greyish-white colour, very brittle, with a granulated fracture. According to Bergmann, Karsten, and others, by melting iron with tin, 2 distinct and definite alloys are always obtained; the one composed of 21 tin and 1 iron; the other of 2 iron and 1 tin. The former is very malleable and harder than tin, without being so brilliant; the latter is not very malleable, and too hard to be pared with the knife.

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