alloys, japanese defined in 1909 yearalloys, japanese - Alloys, Japanese;
alloys, japanese - (a) Kalischer, of Berlin, made an analysis of four Japanese alloys, with the following results:
The first, which contained much gold, had a light-red colour, with a bluish-black, lustrous patina on one side. The second, which contained silver, had a grey, almost silver-white colour, with a slight shade of yellow. c and d resembled brass in colour, and were, as the figures show, almost identical, representing a peculiar kind of bronze. Externally they were exactly alike, except that one had a fine crust outside which gave it a duller look than the metal itself. They differ from bronze in having so much lead in them, and the amount of zinc is also higher.
(b) H. Morin published analyses of some Chinese and Japanese bronze exhibited at Paris; like c and d above, they are distinguished by the large percentage of lead, which he found to vary between 9.9 and 20.31 per cent., while the zinc fluctuated from 0.5 to 6.0 per cent. To the large amount of lead Morin attributes the black patina which mostly characterises these bronzes. Gristofle and Bouilhet, on the one hand, confirm this view, and, on the other, prove that patina of different colours may be produced by chemical means without having recourse to bronze containing a large quantity of lead, which, as Morin himself states, is difficult to use on account of its brittleness. Morin's analyses show that in other respects the bronzes he examined bear no relation to those analysed by Kalischer.
(o) R. Pumpelly published the com-, position of a number of Japanese alloys, which showed the greatest conformity with the above, especially the two first mentioned. A native worker in metals allowed Pumpelly a glance into the preparation of the metals, which is generally kept secret, and he described, under the name of shakdo, alloys of copper and gold in which the quantity of gold varied from 1 to 10 per cent. They have a bluish-black patina, which is produced by boiling the metal or the object made of it in a solution of copper sulphate, alum, and verdigris, which removes some of the copper and exposes a thin film of gold. The action of light upon this produces the bluish-black colour, the intensity of which increases with the quantity of gold. This group can be reckoned with alloy a above. Gin-shi-bui-chi is an alloy of silver and copper, in which the amount of silver varies between 30 and 50 per cent. When boiled in the above solution, the alloy acquires a grey colour much admired by the Japanese. Alloy b belongs to this group. The name of Jcara-haue is given to a sort of bell-metal, consisting of copper, zinc, tin, and lead, and having some resemblance to alloys c and d.
(d) MaumenÂ£ furnished analyses of Japanese bronzes sent home from public monuments, temples, and works of art. The alloys are granular in texture, and readily take a good polish, bringing out the true colour of the metal over large surfaces. The predominating tint is purple where much antimony is present, red where iron is the chief ingredient. These alloys have evidently been prepared with unrefined minerals. In Maumene's opinion they are to be regarded as results of the admixture of copper pyrites and antirnonial galena with blende. In some, the calcination appears to have been imperfect, as shown by the sulphur present in b:
The Japanese word corresponding to the English "bronze" is Tcarakane, which means "Chinese metal"; whereas the brass alloys are called shin-chu. The spelter used for the latter is imported.
near alloys, japanese in Knolik
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