Значение термина molasses-alcohol в knolik
molasses-alcohol - Molasses-alcohol
molasses-alcohol - Rich molasses (the impure uncrystallisable sugary product separated from raw sugars by the process of refining) contains as much as 50 per cent, of sugar. The drainings and skimmings obtained on cane estates in the preparation of sugar are included under the same term. When diluted with water, fermentation sets in rapidly. Molasses from beet-sugars are usually alkaline, and first need acidification, about 4½ lb. of concentrated sulphuric acid being added to each 22 gal. of molasses, previously diluted with 8 to 10 volumes of water. Fermentation is hastened by the aid of a little brewer's yeast, or other natural ferment; it begins in 8 to 10 hours and lasts over 60.
Cane-molasses alcohol is familiar as rum, while the beet-molasses article is generally rectified down to almost pure spirit.
Beet-sugar molasses as it comes from the sugar house may contain from 30 to 45 per cent, of sugar, and water should be added and stirred in (by hand, though usually by a machine) to a concentration of 16 to 18 per cent, of sugar. The density of the liquid is 1.060 or 6° to 8° B. To each 1000 gal. of wash add 1 gal. of strong sulphuric acid and 10 lb. sulphate of ammonia to neutralise alkaline carbonates (which otherwise retard fermentation) and to obtain vigorous fermentation.
The yeast used for fermentation is prepared from malt or grain as concentrated as possible. The "pitching" temperature of the wash varies with its strength, but for general purposes 81° to 83° F. is best. Fermentation commences at 77° F., and for strong washes as high as 90° F. is sometimes kept. About 82° F. is usually most conducive to the growth of yeast. With large vats the temperature sometimes rises quickly, and on this account it is customary for a pipe coil to be provided in the bottom, through which cold water can be run.
Cane Sugar molasses, together with the "skimmings," the washings of the pans, precipitates, etc. are all used for making alcohol, practically the whole of which goes to produce rum. The first process is that of clarifying the mixture previous to its fermentation. This is performed in a leaden receiver holding about 300 to 400 gal. When the clarification is complete, the clear liquor is run into the fermenting vat, and there mixed with 100 or 200 gal. of water (hot, if possible), and well stirred. The mixture is then left to ferment. The great object that the distiller has in view in conducting the fermentation is to obtain the largest possible amount of spirit that the sugar employed will yield, and to take care that the loss by evaporation or acetification is reduced to a minimum. In order to insure this, the following course should be adopted. The room in which the process is carried on must be kept as cool as it is possible in a tropical climate; say, 75° to 80° F. If the fermenting vat has a capacity of 1000 gal. the proportions of the different liquors run in would be 200 gal. of well-clarified skimmings, 50 gal. of molasses, and 100 gal. of clear dunder (Dunder is the liquor, or "wash," as it is termed, deprived by distillation of its alcohol, and much concentrated by the boiling it has been subjected to; whereby the substances it contains, as gluten, gum, oils, etc., have become, from repeated boilings, so concentrated as to render the liquid mass a highly aromatic compound. In this state it contains at least two of the elements necessary for fermentation, so that, on the addition of the third, viz., sugar, that process speedily commences.); they should be well mixed together. Fermentation speedily sets in, and 50 more gal. of molasses are then to be added, together with 200 gal. of water. When fermentation is thoroughly established a further 400 gal. of dunder may be run in, and the whole well stirred up. Any scum thrown up during the process is immediately skimmed off. The temperature of the mass rises gradually until about 4° or 5° above that of the room itself. Should it rise too high, the next vat must be set up with more dunder and less water; if it keeps very low, and the action is sluggish, less must be used next time. No fermenting principle besides the gluten contained in the wash is required. The process usually occupies 8 or 10 days, but it may last much longer. Sugar planters are accustomed to expect 1 gal. of proof rum for every gal. of molasses employed. On the supposition that ordinary molasses contains 65 parts of sugar, 32 parts of water, and 3 parts of organic matter and salts, and that, by careful fermentation and distillation, 38 parts of absolute alcohol may be obtained, we may then reckon upon 33 lb. of spirit, or about 4 gal., which is a yield of about 5| gal. of rum, 38 per cent, over-proof, from 100 lb. of such molasses.
The following process is described in Deerr's work on "Sugar and Sugar Cane ":
"In Mauritius a more complicated process is used; a barrel of about 50 gal. capacity is partly filled with molasses and water of density 1.10 and allowed to spontaneously ferment; sometimes a handful of oats or rice is placed in this preliminary fermentation. When attenuation is nearly complete more molasses is added until the contents of the cask are again of density 1.10 and again allowed to ferment. This process is repeated a third time; the contents of the barrel are then distributed between three or four tanks holding each about 500 gal. of wash of density 1.10, and 12 hours after fermentation has started here, one of these is used to ' pitch' a tank of about 8000 gal. capacity; a few gal. are left in the pitching tanks, which are again filled up with wash of density 1.10 and the process repeated until the attenuations fall off, when a fresh start is made. This process is very similar to what obtains in modern distilleries, save that the initial fermentation is adventitious."
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