boiler incrustation, tannin and vegetable bodies



boiler incrustation, tannin and vegetable bodies defined in 1909 year

boiler incrustation, tannin and vegetable bodies - boiler incrustation, Tannin and Vegetable Bodies;
boiler incrustation, tannin and vegetable bodies - Various tannin matters, such as chestnut extract, sumac extract, gambierand sumac, are often added to boiler compositions, partly as colouring matters, partly on account of their influence on the formation of scale. While they can hardly have much, if any, chemical effect, yet their presence will exert a mechanical influence in keeping the scale open and loose, easily to be drawn off through the blow-off cock.

As they are generally presented in a dry form, they should be well soaked in water before being introduced into the boiler, else they are liable to be carried over mechanically with the steam, and give much annoyance by choking the pipes and valves. Care must be taken also where the steam is to be blown into tanks for heating purposes, as in flax and hemp boiling, the tannic acid forming with the iron present in the fibre a black stain or blot, which cannot be bleached without the use of an acid, and consequent liability to damage the tissue.

Starch is often added partly to give a false idea of the strength of the composition, partly to act in the same way as the tannin matters.

Summarising the matter of these compositions briefly, one may say that where the carbonates of lime and magnesia only are concerned, then caustic soda is the best agent to use; where the sulphate of lime predominates, then carbonate of soda, with a small amount of oxalate of soda, or phosphate of soda, may be employed. When magnesia salts are abundant, then caustic soda should predominate in the composition.

There is one point that should not be overlooked; some waters contain much organic matter - often this has an acid character, and tends to corrode the boilers. This is partly corrected by the alkalis added, but it is as well to destroy it, and here it is that permanganate becomes useful.

The following may be taken as typical boiler compositions:
  1. Powder -
    1. For limey waters:
      • 1 cwt. ammonia alkali, 58 per cent.
      • 10 lb. 98 per cent, caustic soda.
      • 2 lb. oxalic acid.
    2. For limey waters with much or ganic matter:
      • 1 cwt. ammonia alkali, 58 per cent
      • 10 lb. 98 per cent, caustic soda.
      • 2 lb. permanganate of potash.
    3. For magnesium waters:
      • 1 cwt. ammonia alkali, 58 per cent.
      • 28 lb. 98 per cent, caustic soda.
      • 5 lb. phosphate of soda.
    4. For magnesium waters with much organic matter:
      • 1 cwt. ammonia alkali.
      • 28 lb. 98 per cent, caustic soda.
      • 5 lb. phosphate of soda.
      • 2 lb. permanganate of potash.
  2. Liquid -
    To the materials given below add water to make up to any desired strength (usually the quantities given will do to fill a 40-gal. cask).
    1. For limey waters:
      • 84 lb. ammonia alkali.
      • 10 lb. caustic soda.
      • 2lb. oxalic acid.
      • 3lb. cutch.
    2. For limey waters:
      • 84 lb. ammonia alkali.
      • 10 lb. caustic soda.
      • 2lb. oxalic acid.
      • 3lb. cutch.
      • 3 lb. farina.
    3. For magnesium waters:
      • 76 lb. ammonia alkali.
      • 20 lb. caustic soda.
      • 2lb. phosphate of soda.
      • 3lb. cutch.
    4. For waters with organic matter:
      • 76 lb. ammonia alkali.
      • 20 lb. caustic soda.
      • 3 lb. phosphate of soda.
      • 2 lb. permanganate of potash.
    5. For waters with much sulphates:
      • 84 lb. ammonia alkali.
      • 20 lb. caustic soda.
      • 3 lb. oxalic acid.
      • 5 lb. cutch.


    1. These will show how. to build up a composition.

      As to the quantity to be added, it is a safe plan to add 10 gr. of ammonia alkali or caustic soda to every 10 gr. of lime and magnesia compounds in the water.

      ('Decorators' Gazette and Plumbers' Review.').

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