book binding, marking up and sawing in
book binding, marking up and sawing in defined in 1909 yearbook binding, marking up and sawing in - book binding, Marking up and Sawing in;
book binding, marking up and sawing in - After having been for a night in the press, the book is again collated, knocked straight at both head and back, and put into the laying press between boards, projecting beyond them about 1/8 in. The boards are held between the fingers of each hand, and the back and head are knocked alternately on the cheek of the press; the boards being then withdrawn the required distance from the back of the book, the book and boards are held tightly with the left hand, and the whole carefully lowered into the press, the right hand being employed to screw up tightly, holding the book quite straight, and firmly. If the book is to have "flexible" binding, it is not sawn in, but marked, the difference being that the cord is outside the sheets, instead of being imbedded in the back in a groove made by the saw.
For the flexible binding of an ordinary 8vo volume,to be cut all round, the back is divided into 6 equal portions, leaving the bottom or "tail" ½ in. longer than the rest, to accommodate an optical illusion, by which, if the spaces were all equal, the bottom one would appear to be the smallest. The marks on the back are exactly squared, and marked pretty black with a lead pencil. The head and tail are next sawn in to imbed the chain of the kettle-stitch, at a sufficient distance to prevent the thread being accidentally divided in cutting. Great accuracy is absolutely necessary in flexible work, especially in the marking up, as the bands on which the book is sewn remain visible after covering. A very small book, such as a prayer-book, is marked up for 5 bands, but only sewed on 3, the other 2 being fastened on as false bands when the book is ready for covering.
A book that is to be "sawn in" is marked up as for flexible work, but the back is sawn, both for the bands and "kettle-stitch," with a tenon saw, having the teeth not spread out too much, and of suitable width of cutting face. The cut must not enter too deeply, and must in all cases be guided by the thickness of cord to be used. The size of the book determines the thickness of the cord; suitable kinds can be purchased, being known by the size of the book as 8vo, 4to, etc. Loose cording causes great inconvenience, and necessitates puting a lot of glue into the grooves to keep the cord in place. On the other hand if the saw-cuts are not deep enough, the cord will stand out from the back, and be seen when the book is finished, if not remedied by extra pieces of paper between the bands when lining up. Double thin cord is better than single thick for large books, because thin cords will imbed themselves in the back, whereas a large one will not, unless very deep and wide saw cuts be made. Large folios should be sawn on 6 or 7 bands, but 5 is the right number for an 8vo, from which all other sizes can be regulated.
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