book binding, collating
book binding, collating defined in 1909 yearbook binding, collating - book binding, Collating;
book binding, collating - Each sheet or leaf must be put in its proper sequence, according to the "signatures." Plates are trimmed or cut to the proper size before being placed in the book; and maps that are to be folded must be put on "guards." A map mounted on a guard of the size of the page may be kept laid open on the table beside the book, which can be read at any part without concealing the map; this is called "throwing-out" a map.
For collating, the book is held in the right hand, at the right top corner, a turn of the wrist bringing the back to the front. The sections are fanned out and with the left hand brought back to an angle, which will cause them, when released, to spring for ward, so that the letter on the right bottom corner of each sheet is seen and released in succession. The book must always be beaten or rolled before placing plates or maps, especially if they are coloured.
After ascertaining that the letterpress is perfect, the plates are collated and squared with a sharp knife and straight-edge. If printed on paper larger than the book, the plates must be cut down to the book size, leaving less margin at the back than there will be at the fore-edge when the book is cut. Frontispiece plates face to the left; but as a general rule, plates should be placed on the right hand, so that on opening the book they face upwards. With plates at a right-angle to the text, the inscriptions are placed on the right margin, whether the plate faces to the right or left. Plates on thick paper must be "guarded," either by adding a piece of paper of the same thickness, or by cutting a piece off the plate and rejoining with a strip of linen, so that the plate works on a linen hinge. The width between the guard and the plate must equal the thickness of the paper. Cardboard plates are strengthened by putting linen at both back and front. If a book consist of plates only, sections may be made by placing 2 plates and 2 guards together, and sewing through the centre between the guards, leaving a space between the guards to form the back.
Maps are best mounted on the finest linen (which takes up the least room in thickness), cut a little larger than the map, with an additional piece left, on which to mount the extra paper, which throws the map out. The latter is trimmed at its back first, then brushed with rather thin paste; the pasting-board being removed, the linen is laid on, gently rubbed down, and turned over, so that the map comes to the top; the white paper is then placed a little away from the map, and the whole is well rubbed down, and finally laid out flat to dry. The paste must be clean, free from lumps, and used very evenly and moderately. The map, when dry, is trimmed all round, and folded to its proper size - a little smaller than the book will be when cut.
With all folded maps or plates, a corresponding thickness must be placed in the backs where the maps go, or the fore-edge will be thicker than the back. Pieces of paper called guards, folded ¼-1 in. in width, according to the size of the book, and placed in the back, are sewn through as a section; but care must be taken that the guards are not folded so large as to overlap the folds of the map, or the object of their being placed there will be defeated. It is easy to ensure the pasting being straight along the edge of a paper plate by placing a strip of waste paper to mark the limit and receive the spreading of the brush.
Having placed the plates, go through them again when dry, see that they adhere properly, and break off or fold them over up to the pasting, with a folding-stick, so that they will lie flat when the book is open. Coloured plates should be looked after during the whole of binding, especially after pressing. The gum on their surfaces may cause them to stick to the letterpress; in this case do not try to tear them apart, but warm a polishing iron, and pass it over the plate and letter-press, laying a piece of paper between the iron and the book to avoid dirt. The heat and moisture will soften the gum, and the surfaces can then be very easily separated. Eubbing a little powdered French chalk over the coloured plates before sticking them in, acts as a preventive. If a book is entirely composed of single leaves, it should be collated properly and the plates placed in their places, squared and broken over, by laying a straight-edge about ½ in. from the back edge, and running a folder under each plate, thus lifting it to the edge of the runner. The whole book is then pressed for a few hours and taken out; the back, previously roughed with the side edge of a saw, is glued up, thus. The book is put into the laying press between boards, with the back projecting about 1/8 in.; the side edge of the saw is then drawn over it, so that the paper is rasped; the back is then sawn in properly, as explained in the next section, and the whole back is glued. After drying, the book is separated into "sections" of 4, 6, or 8 leaves, according to the thickness of the paper, and each section is then "overcast"or "over sewn " along its whole length. The thread being fastened at the head and tail (top and bottom), each section is made independent of the others. The sections are then (2 or 3 at a time) gently struck along the back edge with a hammer against a knocking-down iron, to imbed the thread in the paper, or the back would be too thick. Having placed the plates, the book is put into the press for a few hours, when it will be ready for "marking up" if for flexible sewing, or for "sawing in," if for ordinary work. The presses used by bookbinders are called "standing" and "laying," the latter name being obviously a corruption of "lysing".
For interleaving writing paper between the leaves of letter-press, the book must be properly beaten or rolled, and each leaf cut up with a hand-knife, both at the head and fore-edge; the writing paper is then folded to the size of the book and pressed. A single leaf of writing paper is fastened in the centre of each section, and a folded leaf is placed to every folded letter-press leaf, by inserting the one within the other, leaving to every other section a folded writing paper outside, putting them all level with the head; the whole book is finally well pressed.
Fig. illustrates methods of inserting guards: in A, a is the guard, 6 the linen hinge, and c the plate; in B, a are the guards, covered on each side with linen, and 5 are the plates, the dot between the guards indicating where the sewing through takes place; in C, which is B closed, are the linen-covered guards, and b the plates.
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