book binding, folding
book binding, folding defined in 1909 yearbook binding, folding - book binding, Folding;
book binding, folding - The first step is to fold the printed sheets evenly, by laying them on a table with the"signatures" (figures or letters on the first page of each sheet) at the left side facing downwards. The sheet is folded over from right to left, carefully placing the "folios" (numbers of the pages) together, and held so I while the folding-stick, carried in the right hand, is drawn across the sheet, creasing the centre. Next the folder is held where the new crease is to be made, and the top half is folded downwards in the same even manner. This order is repeated till the sheet assumes the form of a page.
Books that have already been folded, and issued in numbers, must be "pulled to pieces" or divided before binding. The parts being arranged in order, the outside wrappers are torn away, and each sheet is pulled out singly, cutting any thread used in sewing the centre of the sheet at the back. Even if the sheets have not been properly done in the first instance, refolding is not often resorted to, the previous creasing rendering the paper liable to be torn; books that have been bound and cut would be rendered worse by refolding. The edge of each sheet (from a folded work) being cleared of all adhering glue, etc., the book is ready for the next process. In large establishments folding is done by machine. A very useful auxiliary to hand folding is a revolving table carrying the sheets in succession before the gatherers.
Beating and Rolling. - The object of these processes is to make the book solid. Use is made of a stone or iron slab, perfectly smooth, and bedded with great solidity; and a bell-shaped hammer, weighing about 10 lb., with a short handle fitting the hand. The faces of both hammer and "stone" must be kept clean, and it is well to lay a piece of paper above and below the "sections" when beating, or the repeated concussion will glaze them. Each "section" or lot should be, about ½ in. thick, that will be 15-20 sheets, according to the thickness of paper. The section is held between the fingers and thumb of the left hand resting on the stone; the hammer, grasped firmly in the right hand, is raised and brought down with rather more than its own weight on the section, which is continually moved round, turned over and changed about, in order that it may be equally beaten all over. By passing between the fingers and thumb, it can be felt whether it has been properly and evenly beaten. In each blow of the hammer, the face must fall fairly on the body of the section; if the hammer is used so that the greatest weight falls outside the edge of the sheets, the paper will break away as if cut. After each section has been beaten, the whole are put together and beaten again.
Boiling sometimes replaces beating. But all books should not be rolled, and it is essential to know how and when to use the beating hammer, and when the rolling machine. Old books should on no account be rolled. The early printing presses exerted such pressure on the type that the paper round the margins is often 2 or 3 times as thick as the printed portion. For modern work, the rolling machine is, as a rule better than the hammer.
For rolling the book is also divided into sections but fewer sheets are taken - from 6 upwards according to the quality of the work. The sheets are placed between tins, and the whole passed under a roller, which is adjusted to the thickness of the sections and the power required, by a screw provided for the purpose. Some binders execute rolling, at a small charge, for others.
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