book binding, cutting
book binding, cutting defined in 1909 yearbook binding, cutting - book binding, Cutting;
book binding, cutting - All cutting "presses" are used in the same way: the plough runs over the press, and its left cheek runs between 2 guides fastened on the left cheek of the press. By turning the screw of the plough, the right cheek is advanced towards the left; the knife fixed on the right of the plough is advanced, and, with the point, cuts gradually through the boards or paper secured in the press, as already described in preparing the boards. There are 2 kinds of plough in use - in one the knife is bolted, in the other the knife slides in a dovetail groove - termed respectively "bolt knife" and " slide knife." The latter is preferable, on account of its facility of action, as any length of knife can be exposed for cutting. A bolt knife being fixed to the shoe of the plough, is necessarily a fixture and must be worn down by cutting or squaring millboards, or such work, before it can be used with the truth necessary for paper.
To cut a book properly, it must be quite straight, and the knife must be sharp and perfectly true. Having this in mind, the book may be cut by lowering the front board the requisite distance from the head that is to be cut off. A piece of thin millboard or "trindle" is put between the hind board and the book, so that the knife when through the book may not cut the board of the book. The book is now lowered into the cutting-press, with the back towards the workman, until the front board is exactly on a level with the press. The head of the book is now horizontal with the press, and the amount to be cut off is exposed above it. Both sides should be looked to, as the book is very liable to get a twist in being put in the press. When it is quite square, the press is screwed up tightly and evenly. Each end should be screwed up to exactly the same tightness; if one end is loose, the paper will be jagged or torn instead of being cut cleanly.
The book is cut by drawing the plough gently to and fro; each time it is brought towards the workman, a slight amount of turn is given to the screw of the plough. If too much turn is given to the screw, the knife will bite too deeply into the paper, and will tear instead of cutting it. If the knife has not been properly sharpened, or has a burr upon its edge, it will be certain to cause ridges on the paper. The top edge being cut, the book is taken out of the press and the tail is cut. A mark is made on the top of the hind or back board just double the size of the square, and the board is lowered until the mark is on a level with the cut top. The book is again put into the press, with the back towards the workman, until the board is flush with the cheek of the press; this will expose above the press the amount to be taken off from the tail, as before described, and the left-hand board will be, if put level with the cut top, exactly the same distance above the press as the right-hand board is below the cut top. The tail is cut in the same way as the top.
To cut a book properly requires great care. Always lay a book down one way and take it up another, and in cutting always work with the back of the book to wards you, and cut from you. Give the turn to the screw of the plough as it is thrust from you, or you will pull away a part of the back instead of cutting it. In cutting the fore-edge, always have the head of the book towards you, so that if not cut straight you know exactly where the fault lies. The fore-edge is marked at both back and front of the book by placing a cutting-board under the first 2 or 3 leaves as a support; the millboard is then pressed firmly into the groove, and a. line is drawn or a hole is pierced at head and tail, using the fore-edge of the board as a guide. The book is now knocked with its back on the press quite flat, and "trindles" (flat pieces of steel in the shape of an elongated U, about 1½ in. wide and 3-4 in. long, with a slot nearly the whole length), are placed between the boards and book by letting the boards fall back from the book, and then passing one trindle at the head, the other at the tail, allowing the top and bottom slip to go in the grooves of the trindles. The object of this is to force the back up quite flat; by holding the book when the cut-against and runner are on it, supported by the other hand under the boards, it can be seen if the book is straight. The cut-against must be put quite flush with the holes on the left of the book, and the runner the distance under the holes that the amount of square is intended to be. The book being lowered into the press, the runner is put flush with the cheek of the press, and the cut-against just the same distance above the press as the runner is below the holes. The trindles are taken out from the book when the cutting-boards are in their proper place; the millboards will then fall down. The book and cutting-boards must be held very tightly, or the book will slip. If the book has been lowered into the press accurately, everything will be quite square. The press is screwed up tightly, and the fore-edge is ploughed; when the book is taken out of the press, it will resume its original rounding, the fore-edge will have the same curve as the back, and if cut truly there will be a proper square all round the edges. This method is known as "cutting in boards."
If the workman has a set of some good work which he wishes to bind uniformly, but which has already been cut to different sizes, and he does not wish to cut the large ones down to the smaller size, he must not draw the small ones in, as he may possibly not be able to pull his boards down the required depth to cut the book, so he must leave the boards loose, cut the head and tail, then draw the boards in, and turn up and cut the fore-edge.
"Cutting out of boards" is by a different method. The fore-edge is cut before glueing up, taking the size from the case, if for casing, from the back to the edge of the board in the foreedge. The book is glued up, rounded, and put into the press for ½ hour, just to set it. The size is again taken from the case, allowing for squares at head and tail. The book, having been marked, is cut, and then backed. Cloth cases are made for most periodicals, and may be procured from their publishers at a trifling cost, which varies according to the size of the book and the amount of blocking that is upon them.
Fig. 1 illustrates the cutting-press, a being the knife. Fig. 2 shows the knocking-down iron: the flange a is secured between the cheeks of the press; the sides & rest on the press; and the boards are hammered on the smooth face c. Fig. 3 is an ideal section of the cutting-press, representing the cutting of a fore-edge of a book; a, jaws of press; &, cut-against; c, fore-edge of book; d, runner; e, boards of book. [fig:f_067.jpg size:2 title:book binding, cutting-press.] [fig:f_068.jpg size:1 title:book binding, knocking-down iron.] [fig:f_069.jpg size:2 title:book binding, an ideal section of the cutting-press. An ideal section of the cutting-press representing the cutting of a fore-edge of a book; a, jaws of press; &, cut-against; c, fore-edge of book; d, runner; e, boards of book.]
near book binding, cutting in Knolik
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