book binding, head-banding
book binding, head-banding defined in 1909 yearbook binding, head-banding - book binding, Head-banding;
book binding, head-banding - Few binders work their own head-bands; the majority use the machine-made headband. These can be purchased of any size or colour, at a moderate price.
Head-banding done by hand is really only a twist of different coloured cotton or silk round a piece of vellum or catgut fastened to the back at every half-dozen sections. If the head-band is to be square or straight, the vellum should be made by pasting 2 or 3 pieces together. Damp the vellum previously, and put it under a weight for a few hours to get soft. Vellum from old ledgers and other vellum-bound books is mostly used. The vellum, when quite dry and flat, is cut into strips just a little under the width of the squares of the books, so that when the book is covered, the amount of leather above the headband and the head-band itself will be just the size or height of the square.
If, however, a round head-band is chosen, catgut is taken on the same principle with regard to size, and this is further advanced by using 2 pieces of catgut, generally one being smaller than the other, and making with the beading 3 rows. To explain how the head-band is worked is a difficult task; yet the process is very simple. The great difficulty is to get the silks to lie close together, which they will not do, if the twist or beading is not evenly worked. This requires time and patience to accomplish. The hands must be clean or the silk will get soiled; fingers must be smooth or the silk will be frayed.
Supposing a book is to be done in 2 colours, red and white. The headband is cut to size, the book is, for convenience, held in a press, or a plough with the knife taken out, so that the end to be head-banded is raised to a convenient height. The ends of the silk or cotton are joined together, and one, say the red, is threaded through a strong needle. This is passed through the back of the book, at about the centre of the second section, commencing on the left of the book, twice, and a loop is left. The vellum is put into this loop, and the silk is drawn tight; the vellum will then be held fa'st. The white is now twisted round the red once, and round the head-band twice; the red is next taken in hand and twisted round the white once and the head-band twice. This is done until the whole vellum is covered. The needle must be passed through the back at about every 8 sections to secure the head-band. The beading is the effect of one thread being twisted over the other, and the hand must be kept exactly at the same tightness or tension, for if pulled too tightly the beading will go underneath, or be irregular. The fastening off is done by passing the needle through the back twice, the white is then passed round the red and under the vellum, and the ends are tied together.
Three Colours Plain. - This is commenced in the same way as with 2, but great care must be taken that the silks are worked in rotation,so as not to mix or entangle them. The silks must be kept in the left hand, while the right twists the colour over or round; and as each is twisted round the vellum, it is passed to be twisted round the other two. In fastening off, both colours must be passed round under the vellum and fastened as with the 2-colour pattern.
Head-bands may be worked intermixed with gold or silver thread, or the one colour may be worked a number of times round the vellum before the second colour has been twisted, giving it the appearance of ribbons going round the head-band.
Stuck-on Head-bands may be made at little expense, by using striped calico for the purpose. A narrow stripe is to be preferred of some bright colour. The material must be cut into lengths of about 1½ in. wide, with the stripes across. Cords of different thickness are then cut somewhat longer than the calico, and a piece of the cord is fastened by a nail at one end on a board of sufficient length. The calico is then pasted and laid down on the board under the cord; the cord, being held tightly, may be easily covered with the striped calico, and rubbed with a folder into a groove.
When this is dry, the head and tail of the book are glued, and the proper piece of the head-band is put on. Or the head-band may be purchased, as before stated, worked with either silk or cotton ready for fastening on for Is. to 2s. 6d. a piece of 12 yd., according to the size required. The amateur will find this far better than working his own head-bands, but it has the disadvantage of not looking so even as a head-band properly worked on the book.
After the head-band has been put on or worked, the book is "lined up" or "got ready for covering."
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