book binding, preparing for covering
book binding, preparing for covering defined in 1909 yearbook binding, preparing for covering - book binding, Preparing for Covering;
book binding, preparing for covering - Nearly all modern books are bound with hollow backs except where the books are sewn for flexible work, or otherwise meant to have tight backs.
The head-band is first set with glue, if worked, by gluing the head and tail, and with a folder the head-band is made to take the same form as the back. This is done by holding the book in the left hand with its back on the press, then a pointed folder held in the right hand is run round the beading 2 or 3 times to form it; the silk on the back is then rubbed down as much as possible to make all level and even, and the book is allowed to dry. When dry it is put into the laying press to hold it, and the back is well glued all over; some paper, usually brown, is now taken, the same length as the book, put on the back and rubbed down well with a thick folder; a good-sized beef rib is as good as anything. The overplus of the paper is cut away from the back, except the part projecting head and tail. A second coat of glue is put on the top of the brown paper and another piece is put on that, but not quite up to the edge on the left side. When this is well rubbed down, it is folded evenly from the edge on the right side over to the left; the small amount of glued space left will be found sufficient to hold it down. The top is again glued, folded over from left to right, and cut off level by folding it back and running a sharp knife down the fold. This is what is generally termed "two on and two off," being 2 thicknesses of paper on the back and 2 for the hollow; but thin or small books meed only have 1 on the back, and 2 for the hollow. Thick or large books should have more paper used in proportion to their size. Books that have been over-cast in the sewing should have rather a strong lining up, so that there be not such a strain when opened. When the whole is dry, the overplus of the paper, head and tail, is cut off close to the head-band.
The better the paper used, the easier will be the working of it. Old writing or copy-book paper will be found to be as good as any, but good brown paper is mostly used.
The book is now ready for putting the bands on. These are prepared beforehand by sticking with glue 2 or 3 pieces of leather together or on a piece of paper, well pressing, and allowing to dry under pressure. The paper must be glued twice, allowing each coat to dry before glueing again.
It should then be put on one side for future use, and when wanted, the proper thickness is chosen and cut into strips of a width to correspond with the size of the book. The book is marked up, 5 bands being the number generally used, leaving the tail a little longer than the other portions. The strips of band are then moistened with a little hot water to cause the glue upon the paper to melt. Each piece is then fixed upon the back just under the holes made with the compasses in marking up. This will be found to be a far better plan than to first cut the strips, and then glue them. By the latter plan, the glue is liable to spread upon the side, where it is not wanted, and if the book has to be covered with light calf, it will certainly be stained black: be careful that all glue is removed from the back and sides before attempting to cover any book with calf.
When dry, the ends of the bands are cut off with a bevel, and a little piece of the boards from the corners nearest the back is also taken off on the bevel, that there may not be a sharp point to fret through the leather when the book is opened. This is also necessary, so that the head-band may be properly set. A sharp knife should be inserted in the hollow, and should separate it from the back at head and tail on each side so far as to allow the leather to be turned in.
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