book binding, joints
book binding, joints defined in 1909 yearbook binding, joints - book binding, Joints;
book binding, joints - Morocco books only have morocco joints, thus made. Morocco of the same colour is cut into strips the same length as the book, and about 1½ in. in breadth for 8vo; aline is drawn or marked down each strip about ½ in. from its edge, with a pencil or folder, as a guide. The leather is pared from the mark to a thin edge on the ½-in. side, and the other side is pared as thin as the leather turned in round the board, so that there will be 2 distinct thicknesses on each piece; the larger half going on the board to correspond with the leather round the 3 sides, and the smaller and thinly pared half going in the joint and edge on to the book. The end-papers, only held on with a little paste, are lifted out from the book, the leather, well pasted is put on the board, so that the place where the division is made in the leather by paring will come exactly to the edge of the board; the thin part should then be well rubbed down in the joint, and the small thin feather edge allowed to go on the book.
Great care must be taken to rub the whole down well, that it may adhere properly; the grain need not be heeded. With regard to the overplus at the head and tail, there are two ways of disposing of it; first by cutting both leathers slanting through at once, and making the two meet; or, secondly, by cutting the cover away in a slant and doing the same to the joint, so that the 2 slant cuts cover each other exactly. This requires very nice paring, or it will be seen in the finishing. The book should be left till quite dry, which will take some 5-6 hours. The boards are then filled in by the same method, and the end-papers are fastened in again properly.
Cloth Joints. - If the cloth has been stuck in when the ends were made, after cleaning all unevenness from the joints, the boards are filled in as above, and the cloth joint is stuck down with thin glue, and rubbed down well. The marble paper may now be put on the board by cutting it to a size, a little larger than the filling in of the board, so that it may be well covered. When cloth joints are put in, the board paper is generally brought up almost close to the joint; but with morocco joints, the space left all round must be even.
Calf, Russia, etc. - After having cleaned the joint, the leather is marked all round a trifle larger than the size intended for the end-papers to cover. Then with a knife, the leather is cut through in a slanting direction by holding the knife slanting. The boards should be thrown back to protect the leather, and the book placed on a board of proper size, so that both book and board may be moved together, when turning round. When the leather is cut, a piece of paper should be pasted on the board to fill up the thickness of the leather, and to curve or swing the board back; the boards otherwise are sure to curve the contrary way, especially with calf. When this lining is dry, the endpapers may be pasted down.
There are 2 methods of doing this. In the most exact, the paper is pasted all over, especially in the joint, and the paper being held in the left hand, is well rubbed down, more particularly in the joint. The paper is marked all round (head, fore-edge, and tail) with a pair of compasses to the width required for finishing inside the board. With a very sharp knife, the paper is to be cut through to the depth of the paper only, by laying the straight-edge on the marks made by the compasses. This has the advantage of procuring an exact margin round the board; but it must be done quickly, or the paper will stick to the leather round the board from the paste getting dry, the leather absorbing the watery particles in the paste. The other way is to lay the paper back, and down on the board, and then to mark it. A tin is then placed between the book and paper, and the paper is cut to the marks made. The paper is then pasted down as above. When pasted down, the book should be left standing on its end, with boards left open until thoroughly dry, which will be about 6 hours. A tin should be kept especially for cutting on, and the knife must be as sharp as possible. This latter method is used for all half bindings.
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