book binding, backing
book binding, backing defined in 1909 yearbook binding, backing - book binding, Backing;
book binding, backing - "Backing - boards" should be rather longer than the book, somewhat thicker than cutting-boards, and with their tops planed at an angle, so that the sheets may fall well over. Hold the book in the left hand, lay a board on one side, a little away from the back, taking the edge of the top sheet as a guide, the distance to be a trifle more than the thickness of the boards to be used. The book, with the backing-board is then turned over, holding the boards to the book by the thumb, so that it does not shift; next lay the other board at exactly the same distance on the other side. The whole is now held tightly by the left hand, and lowered into the press. The boards may possibly have shifted a little during the process, and any correction may now be made whilst the press holds the book before screwing up tight, such as a slight tap with the hammer to one end of a board that may not be quite straight. Should the boards however be not quite true, it will be better to take the whole out and readjust them, rather than lose time in trying to rectify the irregularity by any other method.
The book and boards being lowered flush with the cheeks of the press, screw it up as tightly as possible with the iron hand-pin. The back of the Look must now be gently struck with the back of the hammer, holding it slanting, and beating the sheets well over towards the backing-boards. Commence from the centre of the back and do not hit too hard, or the dent made by the hammer will show after the book has been covered. The back is finished with the face of the hammer bringing the sheets well over on the boards so that a good and solid groove may be made. Each side is to be treated in the same way, and have the same amount of weight and beating. The back must receive a gradual hammering, and the sheets when knocked one way must not be knocked back again. The hammer should be swung with a circular motion, always away from the centre of the back. The book, when opened after backing, should be entirely without wrinkles. Backing and cutting constitute the chief work in forwarding, and if these are not done properly, the book cannot be square and solid - great essentials in bookbinding.
Backing flexible work is a little more difficult, as the slips are tighter; otherwise the process is exactly the same, only care must be taken not to hammer the cord too much, and to bring over he sections very gently, in order not o break the sewing thread.
Fig. 1 illustrates a section of a book in the press before backing; a, press; b, backing-boards; c, book. Fig. 2 represents a section of the same book in the press after backing.
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