book binding, millboards
book binding, millboards defined in 1909 yearbook binding, millboards - book binding, millboards;
book binding, millboards - The workman should take advantage of the period of drying to select the proper thickness of boards, and line them with paper on one side or both.
First square the edge which is to go to the back of the book, in the cutting press, using a cutting-board for one side termed a "runner," and another called a "cut-against " for the other side. These are to save the press from being cut; and a piece of old millboard is generally placed on the cut-against, so that the plough-knife does not cut up the latter too quickly. The boards, if for whole-binding, are lined on both sides with paper; if for half-binding, on one side. The reason for lining is to make the boards curve inwards towards the book. The various pastings would cause the board to curve the contrary way if it were not lined. It may be taken as a general rule that a thinner board when pasted will always draw a thicker one. If the boards are lined on both sides, paper is cut double the size of the boards; if on one side, the paper is cut a little wider than the boards, so that a portion of it may be turned over on to the other side about ¼ in. The paper is brushed with not too thick paste, and the board is laid on the paper with the cut edge towards the portion to be turned over. It is now taken up with the paper adhering, laid on the press with the paper side upwards, and rubbed well down; again turned over, and the paper drawn over the other side. Press the boards so as to be quite sure that the paper adheres.
When books are very thick, 2 boards may be stuck together, not only to get the proper thickness but for strength. If a board has to be made, a thick and a somewhat thinner board should be put together. Paste both boards, and put them in the standing press for the night. Great pressure should not be put on at first, but after allowing them to set for a few minutes, pull down the press as tight as possible. When putting made boards to the book, the thinner.one should always be next the book.
When boards are lined on one side only, it is usual to turn ½ in. of the paper over the square edge, and the lined side must be placed next the book.
There are many kinds of boards made. Black boards made of old rope vary much in quality, but the blacker, harder, and smoother they are the better. The grey or white boards, used mostly for antique work, are pasted on a thin black board, and bevelled down to the black one to the required width and angle. The boards used extensively for clothwork are yellow and are made from straw, or from wood-pulp. All boards are sold by weight, no matter what size or thickness.
The most useful implement for cutting the boards up are large shears. One arm or shank is screwed into the laying press, and the other, left free, is used with the right hand; the left hand holds the board to be cut.
Boards, when lined, are laid out to dry, and when dry, cut to the size of the book. The requisite width is obtained by extending the compasses from the back of the book to the edge of the smaller bolt or fold in the foreedge. After screwing them up, the boards are knocked up even, compassed up, and cut in the laying press, using as before, the " cut-against," and placing the runner exactly to the compass holes. When cut, they are tested by turning one round and putting them together again; if they are the least out of truth, it will be apparent at once. The "head" or top of the boards is next cut by placing a square against the back, and marking the head with a bodkin. The boards being quite straight are again put into the press and cut, and when taken out should be again proved by reversing them as before; if not true, they must be recut. The length is taken from the head of the book to the tail, and in this some judgement must be used. If the book has already been cut, the boards must be somewhat larger than the book, leaving only such an amount of paper to be removed as will make the edge smooth. If, however, the book is to be entirely uncut, the size of the book is taken, and the portions called " squares " that project round the book, in addition.
When a book has not been cut, the amount to be cut off the head will give the head or top square, and the,book being measured from the head, another square or projection must be added to it, and the compass set to one of the shortest leaves in the book. Bearing in mind the section on trimming, enough of the book only should be cut to give the edge solidity for either gilding or marbling. A few leaves should always be left not cut with the plough, to show that the book has not been cut down. These few leaves are called "proof," and are always a mark of careful work.
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